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the non-functional rudimentary ____1______ develops early in week 4. They degenerate, leaving behind the ____2_____ ducts which are connected to the ___3____. These ducts will remain for other kidneys to use.

1) pronephros
2) pronephric
3) cloaca

the _______ develops late in week 4, and serves as a temporary excretory organ


the functional ___1_____ develops early in week 5. It is functional by week 11-13 and excretes urine into the ___2___. This excretion continues during fetal life and the fetus swallows this urine mixed in the ____3_____. It is then absorbed in the stomach and duodenum for transport to the ____4___, then to maternal circulation and kidney for elimination.

1) metanephros
2) amniotic fluid
3) amniotic fluid
4) placenta

if the metanephros in the fetus is dysfunctional, it doesn't create enough urine to contribute to the amniotic fluid, creating an ___________ environment


many reptiles that live in dry environments have the adaptation that allows them to convert nitrogenous waste into ____1____, which is secreted by the tubules into the ___2_____

1) uric acid
2) cloaca

the urogenital system develops from the (3)

1) intermediate mesoderm
2) mesodermal epithelium of peritoneal cavity
3) endoderm of urogenital sinus

the intermediate mesoderm used to lie lateral to the ___1___, then moved away during the lateral fold. It forms the ___2____ which is comprised of a ____3_____cord or ridge and a ____4_______.

1) somites
2) urogenital ridge
3) nephrogenic
4) genital ridge

the metanephros develops mesodermally from the ____1_____, which is a dorsal outgrowth from the ____2_____ duct near the cloaca.

1) ureteric bud (metanephric diverticulum)
2) mesonephric

the stalk of the ureteric bud gives rise to the ____1____. the cranial end gives rise to the ____2____. the 1st 4 generations of tubules give rise to the ____3_____ and the 2nd 4 generations give rise to the ___4_____. The remaining generations of tubules give rise to the ____5_____.

1) ureter
2) renal pelvis
3) major calyces
4) minor calyces
5) collecting tubules

the metanephric mesoderm gives rise to the... (6)

1) nephrons
2) glomerulus
3) Bowman's capsule
4) proximal convoluted tubule
5) loop of henle
6) distal convoluted tubule

the kidneys ________ to the abdomen


cloaca in embryo

urogenital sinus

urine leaks out of the umbilicus

patent median umbilical ligament

the ____1_____ develops from the urogenital sinus and the surrounding ____2____

1) urinary bladder
2) splanchnic mesenchyme

the cranial or visceral region of the urogenital sinus will form the bladder and is attached to the ____1_____. After birth it degenerates and becomes the ____2____ , forming the _____3_____.

1) allantois
2) urachus
3) median umbilical ligament

the transitional epithelium of the bladder develops from the _______ of the urogenital sinus


the _________ in the male develops from ectodermal glandular plate

glans penis

incomplete division of the ________ results in double ureter and supernumerary kidneys

ureteric buds

failure of the kidneys to ascend from their embryonic position in the pelvis results in an ________ kidney that is abnormally rotated


the cortex of the suprarenal glands is developed from ___1___. the medulla is developed from _____2_____.

1) mesoderm
2) neural crest cells

neural crest cells in the medulla of the suprarenal glands become ___1___ that receive _____2_____ fibers from the celiac plexus and release epi/adrenalin

1) preganglionic neurons
2) postganglionic sympathetic fibers

the epinephrine is taken up by a rich _________, almost like an IV injection

venous plexus

male germ sex ducts

Wolffian ducts

femal germ sex ducts

Mullerian ducts

______ gene on Y chromosome determines gonadal sex


_________ is the default sex


___1____ and ___2____ are derived from the mesodermal epithelium lining the posterior abdominal wall, the underlying mesoderm, and the primordial germ cells.

1) testis
2) ovaries

the reproductive organs in both sexes develop from primordia that are _____ at 1st .


the ____1____ gonads consist of a cortex and a medulla. In the male, the ___2____ regresses and the ___3____ develops. The reverse occurs in the female.

1) indifferent
2) cortex
3) medulla

persons with true _________ have both ovarian and testicular tissue and variable internal and external genitalia


errors in sexual differentiation cause


results from failure of the fetal testes to produce adequate amounts of masculinizing hormones, or from production of the hormones after the tissue sensitivity of the sexual structure has passed. Subjects are chromosomally male

Male pseudohermaphroditism

results from virilizing adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder of the fetal suprarenal or adrenal glands that causes excessive production of androgens and masculinization of the external genitalia. Subjects are chromosomally female.

female pseudohermaphroditism

previously called testicular feminization syndrome. The patient is a normal-appearing female with the presence of undescended testes and 46, XY chromosome constitution. The external genitalia are female but the vagina ends in a blind pouch. The uterus and uterine tubes are absent.

Androgen Insensitivity syndrome

in the presence of a Y chromosome, ___1____ develop and produce and ___2_____ , stimulating development of the mesonephric ducts into the ____3_____

1) testes
2) inducer substance
3) male genital ducts

male genital ducts become (3)

1) epididymis
2) vas deferens
3) ejaculatory ducts

androgens from the fetal testes stimulate development of the indifferent external genitalia into the ___1____ and ____2______. A suppressor substance (____3____), also produced by the testes, inhibits development of the paramesonephric ducts

1) penis
2) scrotum
3) mullerian inhibiting substance

in the absence of a Y chromosome and in the presence 2 X chromosomes, ___1____ develop, the ___2____ duct regresses and the ____3_____ ducts develop. The superior end of these ducts open into the future peritoneal cavity, the lower end becomes the ___4____ and ____5_____.

1) ovaries
2) mesonephric
3) paramesonephric
4) uterus
5) uterine tubes

the vagina develops from the ___1_____ derived from the urogenital sinus, and the indifferent external genitalia develop into the ___2____ and____3_____

1) vaginal plate
2) clitoris
3) labia

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