Thinking, Intelligence, Language (Chapter 7) - PSY 120

strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem
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Terms in this set (47)
involves evaluating alternatives and choosing among themdecision makingreasoning from a general case that we know to be true to a specific instancedeductive reasoningproduces many solutions to the same problemdivergent thinkinga learning difference characterized by problems in learning to read fluently and with accurate comprehension, despite typical intelligencedyslexiathe belief in the possibility of improving the human species by discouraging reproduction among those with less desirable characteristics and enhancing reproduction among those with desirable characteristicseugenicsinvolves using a prior strategy and failing to look at a problem from a fresh, new perspectivefixationoccurs when individuals fail to solve a problem because they are fixated on a thing's usual functionsfunctional fixednesshave a high intelligence and/or superior talent in a particular areagiftedthe proportion of observable differences in a group that can be explained by differences of the group's membersheritabilityshortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest a solution to a problem but do not guarantee an answerheuristicsour tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcomehindsight biasinvolves reasoning from specific observations to make generalizationsinductive reasoningthe ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentencesinfinite generativitya condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has low cognitive abilities and has difficulty adapting to everyday lifeintellectual disabilityan all-purpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experienceintelligenceconsists of an individual's mental age divided by chronological age multiplies by 100intelligence quotient (IQ)a form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbolslanguagerefers to the tendency to strongly prefer to avoid losses compared to acquiring gainsloss aversiona person's level of mental development relative to that of othersmental age (MA)being alert and mentally present for one's everyday activitiesmindfulnessa language's rules for word formationmorphologya symmetrical, bell-shaped curve, with a majority of the scores falling in the middle of the possible range and few scores appearing toward the extremes of the rangenormal distributionbeing receptive to other ways of looking at thingsopen-mindednessa language's sound systemphonologythe useful character of language and the ability of language to communicate even more meaning than is saidpragmaticsfinding an appropriate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily availableproblem solvingemphasizes that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical item(s) in that category for a "family resemblance" with that item's propertiesprototype modelthe mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusionsreasoningthe extent to which a test gives a consistent, reproducible measure of performancereliabilitythe tendency to make judgements about group membership based on physical appearances or the match between a person and one's stereotype of a group rather than on available base rate informationrepresentativeness heuristicthe meaning of words and sentences in a particular languagesemanticsinvolves developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test, as well as creating norms, or performance standards, for the teststandardizationintermediate goals or intermediate problems to solve that put us in a better position for reaching the final goal or solutionsubgoalsa language's rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentencessyntaxinvolves manipulating information information mentally by forming concepts, solving problems, making decisions, and reflecting in a critical or creative mannerthinkingsays that intelligence come in multiple forms: analytical intelligence. creative intelligence, and practical intelligencetriarchic theory of intelligencerefers to the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measurevalidity