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what are the cheif functions of the digestive system

digestion, absorption, and elimination

what are the 4 layers of the digestive tract

mucous membrane, submucosa, smooth muscle, serous membrane

what is the function of the mucous membrane

secretes digestive juices and mucus

what is the submucosa made of and wht is its funtion

made of connective tissue. I t contains blood vessels and nerves that help regulate digestion

what are the 2 types of smuscle in the smooth muscle layer and what is its function

innler layer is circular outer layer is longitudinal. Its function is peristalsis.

what is the serous membrane (peritoneum) made of

epithelium and loose connective tissue.

what are the 2 ;ayers of ther peritoneum

viseral and parietal

what are the the organs of the digestive tract

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

how does the mouth process food

ingestion, mastication, mixing with saliva, deglutition

what is the digestive enzyme in the outh and what does it digest

amylase digests startch

how many deciduous (baby teeth) do we have


how many aldult permanent teeth


what are the different types of teeth

incisors, cuspids, molars

what is the structure of teeth

dentin, blood vessels, nerves, gingiva, crown, enamel, roots

what is the tissue in the mouth

startified sqamous epithelium

what is the pharynx also called


what are the srtuctures of the pharynx

oropharynx, palatine tonsils, nasopharynx, laryngeal pharynx, soft palate, uvula, epiglottis

what is the esophagus

a muscular tube that joins the mouth to the stomach, by moving food by perastalsis. Do digestion occurs in the esophagus

what is the esophogeal hiatus

a break in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes through

what structure guards the endtrance to the trachea during swallowing


what is the structure of the stomach

it has an additional angled muscle layer, fundus, lower esophogeal sphincter, pyloris, pyloric sphincter, rugae

what are the functions of the stomach

store food and liquid, secrete gastric juice, secrete mucus, makes chyme

what is chyme

highly acidic mixture of gastric juice and food that leaves the stomach for the small intestine

what type of food is digested in the stomach

protein only

what are the 3 sections of the small intestine in order

duodenum, jejunum, iliem

what enters though the duodenum

juices from liver and pancreas

how long is the small intesting

10 feet

what is the function of the small intestine

secrete mucus, secrete enzymes, absorb digested food

at what part of the small intestine is food absorbed

jejunum, iliem

what is the tissue of the small intestine

simple columnar epithelium

what surface projections increase surface are and absorbs the small molecules

villi, microvilli which have blood vessels and lymphatic capillaries (lacteals)

what carries fat away from the small intestine


what is the structure of the large intestine

cecum, ileocecal valve, vermifor appendix, colon, rectum, anal canal, anus

where does the small intestine join the lg intestine


what are the divisions of the colon

ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

what is the function of the large intestine

secrete mucus, reabsorb some water, form feces, defecation

what is the function of the accessory organs

release secretions through ducts into digestive tract

what is the accessory organ to the mouth

salivary glands

what are accessory organs to the duodenum

liver and pancreas

what is the function of saliva

moistens food, facilitates mastication, helps keep teeth and mouth clean, contains amylase

where is saliva produced

parotid glands, submandibular glands, sublingual glands

what is the structure of the liver

right and left lobes, portal vein, hepatic artery

what is the function of the portal vein

takes blood from the GI tract to the liver

what is the function of the hepatic artery

carries O2 blood

what are the functions of the liver

manufacture bile, store glycogen and converts it to glucose, modify fats, store vitamins and iron, form blood plasma proteins, destroy rbc, synthesize urea, detoxify harmful substances

what does bile contain

cholesterol and bilifuben

what is the function of bile

to emulisfy fat

where does bilirubin come from

destroyed rbc

what is urea

waste product

where is bile stored, how does it ge there

stored in the gall bladder, flows from liver through cystic duct.

how does bile leave the gall bladder when it is needed

flows through cystic duct anc common bile duct to the duodenum

what is the function of the pancreas

releases enzymes that digest fats, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids, produces alkaline fluid to neutralize acidic chyme in the small intestine, produces insulin and glucagon

Where is the pancreas locates

behind the stomach

what is the exocrine functon of the pancreas

produce pacnreatic juice

what cells secrete enzymes in the pancreas

Acinar cells

what are the 3 enzymes the pancrease secreates and what does each one digest

amylase-starch, trypsin-protein, lypase-tryglcerides

where does the most chemical digestion occur


what secrete enzymes for digestion

salivary glands, stomach, sm and lg intestine, liver, pancrease

what is the force behin chimal digestion


what does the gi tract use fluids for

to lubricare, liquify and digest food

what is the function of mucus in digestion

to lubricate food, protects the lyning form chemical or mechanical injury

what is the function of water in digestion

liquifies food making it easier to digest and to absorb, it acts as a solvent that allows electrolytes to move across the intestinal wall

what parts of the stomach act as storage

the fundus and the body

what area of the stomach is primarily responsible for digestion


what type of digestion occurs in the stomach

mechanical chemical

what does the combination of food, gastric juice and water that is formed by the stomach called


what are the 2 cells in the stomach

cheif and parietal

what is the fuction of cheif cells

secretes pepsinogen and gastric lipase

what is pepsinogen

inactive form of pepsin which is needed to preak down proteins

what is gastric lipase

enzyme that preaks down milk fat

what is the function of parietal cellls

secrete HCL, and instrinsic factor

what is the function of HCL

activates pepsinogen, and kills most microorganisms

what is cholectstokinin CCK

a hormone secreted by the duodenum and jejunum in the small intestine in response to fat enetering the duodenum. It activates the gall bladder to release bile which will flow throught the cystic duct into the common bile duct to deposit it in the duodenum

what does CCK stimulate the pancrease to do

it stimulates the release of pancreatic juice and pancreatic digestive enzymes which are then changed to active form in the small intestine.

what is in thepancreatic juice and what is its function

bicarbonate which will neutralize the chyme

what enzymes are released from the pancrease and what to they digest

trypsin-protein, lipase-fats, amylase-startch

what absorbs fatty acid in the sm intestine

lacteals in the villi

where does fat go after it is absorbed by the lacteals


what are lacteals part of

lymphatic system

what absorbs sugar, amino acids and water?

capillaries in the villi

what is aborbed in the lg intestine

water, electolytes,

where are water soluable vitamins absorbed

directly into theblood

where are fat soluable vitamins absorbed

absorbed with fats

what is produced by bacterial action in the large intestine

Vitamin K

what are the 2 types of control for the digestive system

hormonal and nervous

what does the parasympathetic nervous system stimulate in the digestive system

stimulation increases activity

what does the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system do for the digestive system

decreases activity

what are the hormones produced during digestion

gastrin, gastric inhibitory peptide, secretin, cholecystokinin

where is gastrin secreted and what is its function

produced by the stomah stimulates the release of gastric juice

where is gastric inhibitory peptide secreted and what is its function

produced by the duodenum and stimulats insulin release from the pancreas when glucose enters the duodenum, inhibits gastric juice

where is secretin produced and what is its function

produced by the duodenum, It stimulates the release of water and bicarbonate from the pancreas, stimulates the release of bile from the liver, inhibits the stomach

where is cholecystokinin produced and what is its function

stimulates the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas, stimulates the release of bile from the gall bladder, inhibits the stomach

what regulates hunger


what stimulates the hypothalamus

blood nutrient levels

what satifies hunger

an adequate meal

what is appetite

no relationship to need for food, may not be satifidfied by an adequat meal.

what is leptin

a hormone produced by adipose tissue that is involved in weight regulation

what are the sources of digestive problems

mechanical, nervous, chemical, horomonal, infection

what are some diseases of the mouth and teeth

dental carries, gingivitis, periodontitis, vinvent disease, leukoplakia

what is periodontitis

infection of the gum and teeths supporting bone

what is vincent disease

gingivitis causes by bacillus or spirochete and can cause death to the tissues

what is leukoplakia

Pre cancerous thickened white particles on the mucous membranes common in smokers

what carries blood fromthe digestive tract to the liver

portal vein

what is gastritis

inflammation of the linning of the stomach

what is a pyloric stenosis

obstruction of the pyloric sphincter

what are causes of inflammatory bowel disealse

crohns and ulcerative colitis

what does crohns disease effect

small intestine

what does ulcerative colitis effect

large intestine

what is gastroenteritis

infection of stomach and small intestine

what is mumps

contagious viral infection of the parotid salivary glands

what are possible complications of mumps

inflammation of testicles, sterility in males

what happens in liver cirrhosis

the active liver cells are replaced by scar tissue

what is the most common cause of liver cirrhosis


what is cholelithiases


what is the most common gall bladder disease


what happens in pancreatitis

pancreatic enzymes back up into the pancreas can be fatal

what can cause pancreatits

gall stones, etoh

what are some effects of aging on the gi system

loss of appetite, difficulty swallowing, decreased digestive organ activity, digestive disorders, tumors and cancer

what is the action of amylase and where is it found

digests starch and is found in the salivary glands and pancreas

what is the action of HCL

breaks down proteins

what is the action of Pepsin and where is it found

begins protein digestion found inthe stomach

what is the action of petidase and where is it found

digests proteins to amino acids found in the small intestine

what is the action of lactase, maltase and sucrase and where is it found

digests disaccharides to monosaccharides found in sm intestine

what is the action of trypsin and where is it found

digests proteins to amino acids found in the pancreas

what is the action of lipase and where is it found

digests fats to fatty acids and glycerol found in the pancreas

what is the action of nucleases and where is it found

digests nucleic acids found in the pancreas

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