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backward integration

takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes

Enterprise systems

provide enterprisewide support and data access for a firm's operations and business processes

Enterprise application integration (EAI)

connects the plans, methods, and tools aimed at integrating separate enterprise systems


several different types of software that sit between and provide connectivity for two or more software applications

Enterprise application integration (EAI) middleware

takes a new approach to middleware by packaging commonly used applications together, reducing the time needed to integrate applications from multiple vendors

supply chain

consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in obtaining raw materials or a product

supply chain management (SCM)

is the management of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and corporate profitability

supply chain visibility

the ability to view all areas up and down the supply chain in real time

supply chain planning systems

use advanced mathematical alogrithms to improve the flow and efficiency of the supply chain while reducing inventory

supply chain execution systems

ensure supply chain cohesion by automating the different activities of the supply chain

electronic data interchange (EDI)

a standard format for the electronic exchange of information between supply chain participants

bullwhip effect

occurs when distorted product-demand information ripples from one partner to the next throughout the supply chain

demand planning systems

generate demand forecasts using statistical tools and forecasting techniques, so companies can respond faster and more effectively to consumer demands through supply chain enhancements

customer relationship management (CRM)

a means of managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability

CRM reporting technologies

help organizations identify their customers across other applications

CRM analysis technologies

help organizations segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customers

CRM predicting technologies

help organizations predict customer behavior, such as which customers are at risk of leaving

Operational CRM

supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers

Analytical CRM

supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers

Sales force automation (SFA)

automatically tracks all the steps in the sales process

Sales management CRM systems

automate each phase of the sales process, helping individual sales representatives coordinate and organize all their accounts

contact management CRM system

maintains customer contact information and identifies prospective customers for future sales, using tools as such as organizational charts, detailed customer notes, and supplemental sales information

opportunity management CRM

target sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales

contact center/call center

where customer service representatives answer customer inquiries and solve problems, usually by email, chat, or phone

web-based self-service systems

allow customers to use the Web to find answers to their questions or solutions to their problems


allow customers to click on a button and talk with a representative via the Internet

call scripting systems

gather product details and issue resolution information that can be automatically generated into a script for the representative to read to the customer

website personalization

occurs when a website has stored enough data about a person's likes and dislikes to fashion offers more likely to appeal to that person

supplier relationship management (SRM)

focuses on keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing suppliers for different projects

Partner relationship management (PRM)

discovers optimal sales channels by selecting the right partners and identifying mutual customers

employee relationship management (ERM)

provides web-based self-service tools that streamline and automate the human resource department

enterprise resource planning (ERP)

integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system (or integrated set of IT systems) so employees can make decisions by viewing enterprisewide information about all business operations

core ERP components

the traditional components included in most ERP systems and primarily focus on internal operations

extended ERP components

the extra components that meet organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations

production and materials management ERP components

handle production planning and execution tasks such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control

human resources ERP components

track employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, and performance assessment and ensure compliance with all laws


manages the transportation and storage of goods


the business-to-business online purchase and sale of supplies and services

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