38 terms

MIS Ch. 8

backward integration
takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes
Enterprise systems
provide enterprisewide support and data access for a firm's operations and business processes
Enterprise application integration (EAI)
connects the plans, methods, and tools aimed at integrating separate enterprise systems
several different types of software that sit between and provide connectivity for two or more software applications
Enterprise application integration (EAI) middleware
takes a new approach to middleware by packaging commonly used applications together, reducing the time needed to integrate applications from multiple vendors
supply chain
consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in obtaining raw materials or a product
supply chain management (SCM)
is the management of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and corporate profitability
supply chain visibility
the ability to view all areas up and down the supply chain in real time
supply chain planning systems
use advanced mathematical alogrithms to improve the flow and efficiency of the supply chain while reducing inventory
supply chain execution systems
ensure supply chain cohesion by automating the different activities of the supply chain
electronic data interchange (EDI)
a standard format for the electronic exchange of information between supply chain participants
bullwhip effect
occurs when distorted product-demand information ripples from one partner to the next throughout the supply chain
demand planning systems
generate demand forecasts using statistical tools and forecasting techniques, so companies can respond faster and more effectively to consumer demands through supply chain enhancements
customer relationship management (CRM)
a means of managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability
CRM reporting technologies
help organizations identify their customers across other applications
CRM analysis technologies
help organizations segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customers
CRM predicting technologies
help organizations predict customer behavior, such as which customers are at risk of leaving
Operational CRM
supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers
Analytical CRM
supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers
Sales force automation (SFA)
automatically tracks all the steps in the sales process
Sales management CRM systems
automate each phase of the sales process, helping individual sales representatives coordinate and organize all their accounts
contact management CRM system
maintains customer contact information and identifies prospective customers for future sales, using tools as such as organizational charts, detailed customer notes, and supplemental sales information
opportunity management CRM
target sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales
contact center/call center
where customer service representatives answer customer inquiries and solve problems, usually by email, chat, or phone
web-based self-service systems
allow customers to use the Web to find answers to their questions or solutions to their problems
allow customers to click on a button and talk with a representative via the Internet
call scripting systems
gather product details and issue resolution information that can be automatically generated into a script for the representative to read to the customer
website personalization
occurs when a website has stored enough data about a person's likes and dislikes to fashion offers more likely to appeal to that person
supplier relationship management (SRM)
focuses on keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing suppliers for different projects
Partner relationship management (PRM)
discovers optimal sales channels by selecting the right partners and identifying mutual customers
employee relationship management (ERM)
provides web-based self-service tools that streamline and automate the human resource department
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system (or integrated set of IT systems) so employees can make decisions by viewing enterprisewide information about all business operations
core ERP components
the traditional components included in most ERP systems and primarily focus on internal operations
extended ERP components
the extra components that meet organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations
production and materials management ERP components
handle production planning and execution tasks such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control
human resources ERP components
track employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, and performance assessment and ensure compliance with all laws
manages the transportation and storage of goods
the business-to-business online purchase and sale of supplies and services