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52 terms

Biology Unit 2 Vocab - Brain+

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neurotransmitter
a chemical molecule that carries the nerve impulse across a synapse from one neuron to another
seratonin
a neurotransmitter that controls happiness and mood. low levels can cause depression.
dopamine
a neurotransmitter that controls ability to experience pleasure. associated with drug addiction.
cerebrum
left and right hemispheres that control voluntary activities
cerebellum
controls motion and coordination, higher level thinking, complex social issues
medula oblongata
first part of brain stem that controls visceral actions
thalamus
relays info to parts of brain
hypothalamus
regulates hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, body temp
corpus callosum
connects left and right hemispheres, allows communication between them
synapse
the point of communication between two neurons
visual cortex
area at back of brain that processes visual info, puts together the picture that we see
cerebral cortex
outer 2-4 mm, complex brain functions, memory, attention, awareness, thinking, language, conciousness
frontal cortex
decision making, reasoning, impulse control
amygdala
processes fear, agression, emotional gut reactions, judgement, decision making
hippocampus
learning, memory, storing info
neural pathway
the transmission route a certain impulse takes
myelin
substance that coats axons along commonly used neural pathways, helping to speed transmission
mylenization
the process of coating the axon with myelin
pituitary gland
controls hormones (endocrine system)
olfactory bulb
located below frontal lobes, processes smell info
gray matter
cell body and processing centers
white matter
axon and synapse
occipital lobe
controls vision, color recognition
retina
back of eyeball
photocells
rods and cones
rods
sees black and white, acuity of image
cones
sees color
optic nerve
blind spot created by...
octopi and squid
eyes with no blind spots
smell
interpret shape of molecule
11G, 12B
period of overproduction of gray matter in frontal cortex and cerebrum
20s+
period of pruning and mylenization, use it or lose it
adolescent brain
vulnerable to addiction, poor decision making, impulsive, alcohol has greater impact on learning and memory and possible impact on brain development into adulthood
neuron
nerve cell
healthy brain
exercise brain with diverse activities, avoid alcohol tobacco drugs, avoid concussions, 8-9.5 hours of sleep, nutrition (omega 3 fatty acids in seafood)
aspartic acid
peanuts, potatoes, eggs, grains
choline
eggs, liver, soybeans
glutamic acid
flour, potatoes
phenylalanine
beats, soybeans, almonds, eggs, meat, grains
tryptophan
eggs, meat, bananas, yogurt, cheese
tyrosine
milk, meat, fish, legumes
nervous system
collect info from internal and external environments, process info, respond
peripheral nervous system
nerves and sensory cells, collect info
central nervous system
spinal cord and brain, process info, respond
create charges
move ions
sodium and potassium
electrolytes critical for functioning
limbic system
amygdala, hippocampus, emotions, behavior, memory, pleasure
sensory receptors
chemo (taste and smell), photo (eyes), mechano, thermo, pain
somatic nervous system
under voluntary control, reflex arc processing can happen in spinal cord
autonomic nervous system
involuntary, sympathetic and parasympathetic
sympathetic nervous system
stress response, preps body for intense activities, blood pressure and sugar up, shuts down unneccesary processes
parasympathetic nervous system
opposite of sympathetic, blood pressure and sugar down, reactivate processes, rest response