Livestock Entomology ID/Knowledge Quiz 3-6

Which of the following are pathogens that can have an affect on humans?
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Terms in this set (40)
______________________ is a arthropod responsible for the transmission of parasites (not diseases) among vertebrate hosts.VectorThere are two types of parasites match each term with the correct definition.Obligate parasites: dependent upon the host to provide requirements for life Facultative parasite: have both free-living and parasitic formsMatch each components of transmission to the correct definition.parasite/pathogen: capable of mulitplication vertebrate host: develops some level of infection that is infectious to others arthropod host or vector: acquires parasite or pathogen from infected and capable of transmissionWhat are the two modes of transmission?vertical:subsequent life stages or generations within the vector populations that contract the pathogens directly. horizontal: passage of pathogens to vector to host.Match each transmission type to the definition that best fits.Transstadial: passage of pathogen to consecutive life stages Transgenerational: pathogens passed from parent to offspring Venereal: pathogen passed through mating Mechanical: parasite transmitted without amplification Biological: typically requires a vector to transmit and an incubation periodKoch's Postulates: Agent should always cause disease when introduced into healthy host.TrueWhen looking at Pavlovsky's "Natural Nidality" the assumption is that diseases are only found in the landscape when all factors (host, vector, and pathogen) are ________________.viable______________ is the integration of mechanical, biological, and cultural control methods to reduce pest populations below a threshold.Integrated Pest ManagementMatch each threshold to the definition that best fits.Economic Injury Level: the number of insects in a system that would cause damage equal to the cost of control of the pest Economic Threshold: the number of insects that calls for corrective actionWhich type of threshold is 1) and 2) ?Economic Injury Level = 1 Economic Threshold = 2What does IPM stand for? ______________________________Integrated Pest ManagementIntegrated pest management is the integration of chemical, biological and mechanical control methods to reduce pest populations below an economic threshold.True________________________the number of insects that would cause damage equal to cost of dealing with those numbers, i.e. break even level.Economic Injury Level_________________is the number of insects that calls for corrective action.Economic ThresholdWhich model shows that a density loss relationships may be linear only for a range of pest densities?ThresholdWhich model shows that as pest density increases, production losses also increase, either on a per animal or per herd basis?LinearWhich model shows that a lower threshold is a non-linear response to low infestation levels and results from behavioral changes that reduce forage utilization and the upper threshold is a linear response that accounts for the pest infestation level that cause direct losses?Two-ThresholdWhich model shows no relationship between pest density and production losses?Non-LinearWhat are the four main control strategies of an IPM program?1) cultural 2) physical 3) biological 4) chemicalSome of the more common pesticides used in a chemical control system are pyrethroids, organophosphates, insect growth regulators and endectocides.TrueWhich one of these are resistance mechanisms?All of the above: - Target Site Resistance - Metabolic Resistance - Penetration Resistance - Behavioral ResistanceWhat are the 4 main modes of action of insecticides? (all answers lower cased)1) neuromuscular toxins 2) insect growth regulators 3) respiratory poisons 4) gut disruptorsMatch each type of insecticide to the mode of action.organophosphates: AChe carbamates: AChe organochlorines: Prolongs chlorine channel synthetic pyrethroids: alters sodium channelsWhat are the two major groups of insect growth hormones? (all lower case)juvenile hormone and chitin synthesis inhibitorsWhat regulates the law for insecticides?EPAWhat are the 4 steps of registering a pesticide? (all lower case)1. laboratory screening 2. laboratory and field testing 3. label registration 4. pesticide productWhat agency has to approve the product and label?Environmental Protection AgencyMatch each term to the correct definition.Residue Tolerance: the maximum amount of pesticide residue legally allowed on or in food or feed at harvest or slaughter Preharvest Interval: minimum number of days allowed between the last application and harvestMatch the formulation to the correct treatment method.Spray Concentrates: Apply for complete coverage, short lived residual effect Sprays and Wipes: Ready to use form, misted of applied with some sort of wipe Pour-on/Spot-on: Most ready to use, direct application along back Ear Tags Control: release application, effectiveness decreases over time Dusts: Ready to use, low concentration mixed with diluent, should not be mixed with water Feed Through: Product is ingested with feed or mineral Self Treatment: Back rubber or dustbagMatch the chemical control breakdown of adults and larvae to the different methods commonly used.Adulticides: Fogs, residual sprays, baits or animal applications Larvicides: Manure applications or feed additives