BIO MIDTERM 2

autosomal dominant
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Terms in this set (40)
Translation Steps:1. Initiation- Formation of initiation complex, mRNA first binds to small ribosomal subunit, initiator tRNA, and large ribosomal subunit 2. Elongation- Amino acids are added to the growing polypeptide chain, Covalent peptide bonds are formed between adjacent amino acids 3. Termination- ribosomes reach a stop codon, release factors bind to stop codon, Polypeptide, mRNA, and tRNA released from ribosomeTranscription Steps:1. Initiation- RNA polymerase binds to the promoter sequence of the template strand of DNA, RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA helix 2. Elongation- Further unwinding of the DNA helix, RNA polymerase reads the template strand and synthesizes the pre-mRNA molecule 3. Termination-Release of RNA polymerase and pre-mRNA from template DNA, DNA strands reform into the double helixReplicationDNA to DNA (coded)TranscriptionDNA to RNA (coded)TranslationRNA to protein (decoded)MitosisReplication of DNA, Division of the nucleusMeiosisCell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organismsInterphase (meiosis) -chromosomes are diffuse throughout the nucleus, nuclear membrane well definedProphase (meiosis)-first part of cell division, centrioles migrate to the pole to direct assembly of mitotic spindle fibers, DNA appears as double- stranded chromosomes, Nuclear envelope breaks down and disappearsMetaphase (meiosis)-chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell on the metaphase plateAnaphase (meiosis)-chromosomes are pulled apart and toward the ends of the cell, cell begins to elongateCytokinesis-begins during anaphase and completes during telophase, cell pinches into two partstelophase (meiosis)-chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin, nuclear envelope reforms around chromatin, spindles break down and disappeartemplate strandThe DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an mRNA transcript.coding strandthe strand that copies off the template strand to produce MRNACodonA specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acidflow of informationDNA -> RNA -> Protein -> TraitX-linked recessiverecessive gene passed down on the X chromosome, Families with an X-linked recessive disorder often have affected males, but rarely affected females,X-linked dominantdominant gene is carried on the X chromosomemRNAmessenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosometRNAtransfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosomerRNAribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosomeAUGa start codon and codes for amino acidsincomplete dominanceHas a distinctive phenotype in heterozygotesCodominanceBoth alleles are fully expressed in heterozygotes CodominanceEpistasisExpression of one gene masks expression of anothermonogenic traitsControlled by a single geneComplex traitsControlled by more than one factorPolygenic traitscontrolled by more than one genesmultifactorial traitsControlled by more than one gene, as well as environmental influences Ex: Height