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The electrified region of the upper atmosphere which impacts radio communication is called the


What gas is produced naturally in the stratosphere and is also a primary component of photochemical smog in polluted air at the surface


Which of the following is not considered a temperature scale? Fahrenheit, Kelvin, Calorie, Celsius


The transfer of heat as water changes state is known as

latent heat transfer

The temperature scale that sets melting of ice and freezing of pure water at 32 degrees


In a temperature inversion in the troposphere air temperature ______ with increasing height


A heat transfer process in the atmosphere that depends upon the movement of air is


The concentration of this gas in the atmosphere can range from about 0% to near 4%

water vapor

On the average, about what percentage of the solar energy that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth's surface


The earth's first atmosphere was composed primarily of

carbon dioxide and water vapor

The transfer of heat by molecule-to-molecule contact is


The greenhouse gas that has been increasing in concentration due to the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.

carbon dioxide

Everything else being equal, the lowest air temperature on a winter night will occur above a surface covered with


The lag in daily temperature refers to the time lag between the time of ______ solar radiation and the time of _____ temperature


Suppose last night was clear and calm. Tonight low clouds will be present. From this you would conclude that tonight's minimum temperature will be ______ than last night's temperature


Sunlight that bounces off a surface is said to be ______ from the surface.


The temperature scale where 0 degrees represents the freezing point and 100 degrees the boiling point of water.


The instrument that measures temperature, pressure, and humidity in the vertical is the


Meteorology is the study of the


The earth's atmosphere is divided into four layers based on changes in the vertical profile of

air temperature

The greatest variation in daily temperature usually occurs at the


The order of the layers of the atmosphere from lowest to highest is

troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere

The earth is closest to the sun in


Sinking air warms by this process.


Which of the following are true for accurate surface temperature measurements?

made in the shade

Which below is not considered a greenhouse gas? carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, oxygen, all of the above


Almost all of the earth's weather occurs in the


Which of the following provides a measure of the average speed of air molecules?


The sun emits its greatest intensity of radiation in the _____ and _____ portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

visible infrared

As the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation increases, its frequency


When a liquid thermometer is held in direct sunlight it will measure a much ____ temperature than that of the air


Energy transferred by electromagnetic waves is called


The temperature of a rising air parcel always ____due to ______

cools expansion

The proper order from shortest to longest wavelength is

ultraviolet, visible, infrared

The largest so-called "ozone hole" is observed above


Lines connecting points of equal temperature are called


Which of the following is one of the main causes of the seasons? the changing distance between the earth and the sun, a periodic reversal in global scale air circulation patterns, the length of the daylight hours, or land/ocean temperature contrasts

the length of the daylight hours

The outpouring of gases from the earth's hot interior is called


Which of the following is considered a greenhouse gas?

water vapor

The word "weather" is defined as the condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place. True or False


Which of the following greenhouse gases is also capable of destroying ozone in the stratosphere? water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, or all of the above


The primary source of the oxygen in the earth's atmosphere during the past few billion years or so appears to be


In the atmosphere, tiny solid or liquid suspended particles of various composition are called


The only substance near the earth's surface that is found naturally in the atmosphere as a solid, liquid, and a gas.


In meteorology, the word insolation refers to

incoming solar radiation

Which of the following is found at the highest altitude? the top of the troposphere, the ozone layer, the top of the stratosphere, or the top of Mt. Everest

the top of the stratosphere

Which of the following weather elements always decreases as we climb upward in the atmosphere?


The most abundant gases in the earth's atmosphere today by volume are

nitrogen and oxygen

The blueness of the sky is mainly due to the ______ of sunlight by air molecules.


The lowest temperature is usually observed

around sunrise

Earth's crust is unique as compared with the other planets in the solar system because it
has remained unchanged over its 4 ½ billion year history. True or False.


Carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor are greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere. True or False.


Earth's temperature would be much warmer than it currently is if it did not experience a
natural greenhouse effect. True or False.


Ice Ages appear to have dominated Earth's climate for most of the past million years. True or False.


Termites produce carbon dioxide gas which contributes to Earth's natural greenhouse effect. True or False.


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