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229 terms

Chapter 1 - History of Abnormal Behavior

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psychological disorder
a psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typically or culturally expected.

All three basic criteria must be met

no one criterion has yet been identified that defines the essence of abnormality.
phobia
psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation
Psychological dysfunction
Breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning
abnormal according to DSM
dysfunctions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with present distress or impairment in functioning or with increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom
prototype
typical profile of a disorder when most or all symptoms that experts would agree are part of the disorder are present
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
Current Version of the official classification system for psychological disorders, published by the APA
Psychopathology
scientific study of psychological disorders
Counseling psychologists
Person who has earned a Ph. D or related degree in psychology and is trained to study and treat adjustment and vocational issues in relatively healthy people
Clinical psychologists
Person who has earned a Ph.D or related degree (i.e. Psy.D) in psychology and is trained to conduct research into the causes and treatment of severe psychological disorders, as well as to diagnose, assess, and treat them
Psy.D.
focus on clinical training and de-emphasize or eliminate research training
Experimental and social psychologists
concentrate on investigating the basic determinants of behavior but do not assess or treat psychological disorders
Psychiatrists
earn an M.D. and investigate the nature and causes of psychological disorders, often from a biological point of view; make diagnoses; and offer treatments. Emphasize drugs or other biological treatments, although most use psychosocial treatments as well
Psychiatric social workers
trained to work with agencies to help psychologically disordered clients and their families. expertise in collecting info relevant to the social and family situation of client. Also treat disorders, often concentrating on family problems associated with them
Psychiatric nurses
specialize in care and treatment of psychiatric patients, usually in hospital setting. Has masters or Ph.D.
MFT
provide clinical services by hospitals or clinics, usually under the supervision of a doctoral-level clinician
Scientist-practitioners
expected to apply scientific methods to his or her work. Must know the latest research on diagnosis and treatment (consumers of psychopathology), must evaluate his or her methods for effectiveness and may generate research to discover info about disorders and their treatment
Presenting problem
Original complaint reported by client to therapist. Actual treated problem may be a modification derived from this.
Clinical description
details of the combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up particular disorder
clinical
refers to both types of problems or disorders found in a clinic or hospital and to the activities connected with assessment and treatment
Function of clinical description
specify what makes the disorder different from normal behavior or from other disorders
Prevalence
# of people displaying a disorder in total population at any given time
incidence
# of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific period
Sex ratio
percentage of men and women with disorder
Course
pattern of development and change of a disorder over time
Chronic course
tends to last a long time, sometimes a lifetime. i.e. schizophrenia
episodic course
alternating between recovery and recurrence. recovery within a few months only to suffer later. i.e. mood disorders
time-limited course
condition in which a disorder improves on its own in a relatively brief period
acute onset
sudden beginning of a disease or disorder (contrast with insidious onset)
insidious onset
development of a disorder that occurs gradually over an extended period (contrast with acute onset)
prognosis
anticipated course of disorder or predicted development over time
developmental psychology
study of changes in behavior that occur over time
developmental psychopathology
study of changes in abnormal behavior that occur over time
life-span developmental psychopathology
study of psychological disorders over the entire age range
etiology
cause or source of the disorder
Miguel recently began feeling sad and lonely. Although still able to function at work and fulfill other responsibilities, he finds himself feeling down much of the time and he worries about what is happening to him. Which criterion or criteria of psychological disorder apply to Miguel's situation? _____

(a) societal norm violation
(b) distress or impairment in functioning
(c) psychological dysfunction.
(b) distress or impairment in functioning
Three weeks ago, Jane, a 35-year-old business executive, stopped showering, refused to leave her apartment, and started watching television talk shows. Threats of being fired have failed to bring Jane back to reality, and she continues to spend her days staring blankly at the television screen. Which criterion or criteria seem to describe Jane's behavior? _____

(a) societal norm violation
(b) distress or impairment in functioning
(c) psychological dysfunction.
(b) distress or impairment in functioning, and (c) psychological dysfunction.
Maria should recover quickly with no intervention necessary. Without treatment, John will deteriorate rapidly. _____

(a) presenting problem
(b) prevalence
(c) incidence
(d) prognosis
(e) course
(f) etiology.
(d) prognosis
During the past month, three new cases of bulimia have been reported in this county and only one has been reported in the next county. _____

(a) presenting problem
(b) prevalence
(c) incidence
(d) prognosis
(e) course
(f) etiology.
(c) incidence
Elizabeth visited the campus mental health center because of her increasing feelings of guilt and anxiety. _____

(a) presenting problem
(b) prevalence
(c) incidence
(d) prognosis
(e) course
(f) etiology.
a) presenting problem
Biological, psychological, and social influences all contribute to various disorders. _____

(a) presenting problem
(b) prevalence
(c) incidence
(d) prognosis
(e) course
(f) etiology.
(f) etiology
The pattern a disorder follows can be chronic, time limited, or episodic. _____

(a) presenting problem
(b) prevalence
(c) incidence
(d) prognosis
(e) course
(f) etiology.
(e) course
How many people in the population suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder? _____

(a) presenting problem
(b) prevalence
(c) incidence
(d) prognosis
(e) course
(f) etiology
(b) prevalence
supernatural model
agents outside our bodies and environment influence our behavior, thinking, and emotions. explanation of human behavior and its dysfunction that posits important roles for spirits, demons, grace, sin, and so on
the mind
often been called the soul or the psyche and considered separate from the body
biological model
Explanation of psychological dysfunction that primarily emphasizes brain disorder or illness as the cause.

disorders are attributed to disease or biochemical imbalances

treatments typically emphasize physical care and the search for medical cures, especially drugs
psychological model
Explanation of human behavior and its dysfunction that emphasizes the influence of the social environment and early experience.

abnormal behavior is attributed to faulty psychological development and to social context.
exorcism
Religious ritual that attributes disordered behavior to possession by demons and seeks to treat the individual by driving the demons from the body.
sin of acedia or sloth
identified by the church. symptoms such as despair and lethargy
mass hysteria
Phenomenon in which people in groups share the same fear, delusion, abnormal behavior, or even physical symptoms as a result of psychological processes and suggestion. Also known as Saint Vitus's dance and tarantism.
emotion contagion
Situation in which an emotional reaction spreads from one individual to others nearby. Demonstrated by mass hysteria
Paracelsus
a Swiss physician who lived from 1493 to 1541, rejected notions of possession by the devil, suggesting instead that the movements of the moon and the stars had profound effects on people's psychological functioning. This influential theory inspired the word lunatic,
Hippocrates
Greek physician (460-377 B.C.)

is considered the father of modern Western medicine.

wrote Hippocratic Corpus, suggested that psychological disorders could be treated like any other disease. They did not limit their search for the causes of psychopathology to the general area of "disease" because they believed that psychological disorders might also be caused by brain pathology or head trauma and could be influenced by heredity (genetics).

considered the brain to be the seat of wisdom, consciousness, intelligence, and emotion. Therefore, disorders involving these functions would logically be located in the brain. recognized the importance of psychological and interpersonal contributions to psychopathology, such as the sometimes-negative effects of family stress; on some occasions, he removed patients from their families.
Galen
Roman physician

(approximately A.D. 129-198)

adopted the ideas of Hippocrates and his associates and developed them further
humoral theory
Ancient belief formed by Hippocrates that psychological disorders were caused by imbalances in bodily humors or fluids.

first example of associating psychological disorders with chemical imbalance, an approach that is widespread today.

related to the Greeks' conception of the four basic qualities: heat, dryness, moisture, and cold

Terms derived from the four humors are still sometimes applied to personality traits
humors
Bodily fluid (blood, black and yellow bile, or phlegm) that early theorists believed controlled normal and abnormal functioning.
blood
heart
black bile
spleen. too much causes depression aka melancholia
phlegm
brain
yellow bile or choler
liver
sanguine
(red, like blood) describes someone who is ruddy in complexion, presumably from copious blood flowing through the body, and cheerful and optimistic
Melancholic
depressive
phlegmatic
apathy and sluggishness but can also mean being calm under stress
choleric
hot tempered
bleeding or bloodletting
carefully measured amount of blood was removed from the body, often with leeches

developed for King Charles VI
induce vomiting
helps cure depression
hysteria
coined by Hippocrates (from the Greek word for uterus: hysteron)

learned from the Egyptians, who had identified what we now call the somatoform disorders.
wandering womb
Hippocrates attributed hysteria to this
delusion of persecution
people's unfounded belief that others seek to harm them
delusion of grandeur
you are God
Psychosis
group of severe psychological disorders including schizophrenia, featuring delusions and hallucinations
delusions
psychological disorders partly characterized by beliefs that are not based in reality
hallucinations
perceptions that are not based in reality
general paresis
disease where patient deteriorated steadily, became paralyzed, and died within 5 years of onset.
Disease
consistent symptoms (presentation) and a consistent course that resulted in death
John P Grey
champion of biological.

position was that insanity caused by physical.

emphasis on rest, diet, and room temperature/ventilation.

invented rotary fan

conditions in hospitals improved

reduced or eliminated interest in treating mental patients because thought that mental disorders were the result of some as-yet-undiscovered brain pathology and were therefore incurable
insulin shock therapy
dangerous biological treatment in 1920's involving administration of large doses of insulin to induce seizures.
neuroleptics
major antipsychotic tranquilizer meds, a dopamine antagonist, that diminish delusions, hallucinations, and aggressive behavior in psychotic patients but may cause serious side effects , i.e. tremors and shaking
benzodiazepines
minor tranquilizers used to reduce anxiety. i.e. Valium, Librium
bromides
sedating drugs used at end of 19th century and beginning of 20th to treat anxiety and other disorders. By 1928, 1 of every 5 prescriptions was for this drug
Emil Kraepelin
dominant figure during late 19th century

influential in advocating biological but little involvement in treating

biggest contribution in diagnosis and classification and description of schizophrenia
Supernatural causes were involved; evil demons took over the victims' bodies and controlled their behaviors. _____

(a) bloodletting and induced vomiting
(b) placing a patient in socially facilitative environments
(c) exorcism
(c) exorcism
The humoral theory reflected the belief that normal functioning of the brain required a balance of four bodily fluids or humors. _____

(a) bloodletting and induced vomiting
(b) placing a patient in socially facilitative environments
(c) exorcism
(a) bloodletting and induced vomiting
Maladaptive behavior was caused by poor social and cultural influences within the environment. _____

a) bloodletting and induced vomiting
(b) placing a patient in socially facilitative environments
(c) exorcism
(b) placing a patient in socially facilitative environments
psychosocial approaches
Treatment practice that focuses on social and cultural factors (such as family experience), as well as psychological influences. Psychosocial approaches include cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal methods.

Emphasized by Plato and Aristotle
moral therapy
psychosocial approach in the 19th century that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments.

worked best when # of patients less than 200

system originated with Pinel. dates back to Plato and the Greek Asclepiad Temple of the 6th century
Asylums
safe refuge; specifically, an institution to house mentally disordered people
mental hygiene movement
mid-19th-century effort led by Dorothea Dix to improve care of the mentally disordered by informing the public of their mistreatment
psychoanalysis
assessment and therapy pioneered by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts

Mesmer
humanistic psychology
highlights the inherent ability of humans to grow and reach their full potential if only given the opportunity

outgrowth of Freudian

Maslow, Rogers, Adler
Behaviorism
explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology

Watson, Skinner, Pavlov
Mesmer
developed cause of mesmerized; caused by undetectable fluid in all living organisms called animal magnetism
Charcot
Freud studied under him
unconscious mind
discovered by Breuer and Freud

part of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person
Catharsis
discovered by Breuer and Freud

rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy
insight
in psychoanalysis, recognition of the causes of emotional distress.

relationship between current emotions and earlier events
Psychoanalytic model
Complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behavior, based primarily on inferred inner entities and forces.
id
the unconscious psychic entity present at birth representing basic drives.

sexual, aggressive, animal
libido
the energy within the id that drives people toward life and fulfillment
thanatos
Freudian concept of a human drive toward death and destruction.
pleasure principle
Tendency to seek pleasure and minimize discomfort.

the id operates according to this
primary process
In psychodynamic theory, the id's characteristic mode of thinking, which is emotional, irrational, and preoccupied with sex, aggression, and envy.
ego
responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy id drives.

mediate conflict

executive or manager of our minds
reality principle
the logical reasoning style of the ego that ensures actions are practical
secondary process
cognitive operations or thinking styles of the ego
superego
the internalized moral standards of parents and society.

conscience
intrapsychic conflicts
struggle among the id, ego, and superego
defense mechanism
Common pattern of behavior, often an adaptive coping style when it occurs in moderation, observed in response to a particular situation.

unconscious processes originating in the ego.

result of anxiety caused by id & superego conflicts
displacement
Defense mechanism in which a person directs a problem impulse toward a safe substitute.
sublimation
defense mechanism in which the person redirects energy from conflict and anxiety into more constructive outlets, such as work.
Reaction formation
Substitutes behavior, thoughts, or feelings that are the direct opposite of unacceptable ones
Projection
Falsely attributes own unacceptable feelings, impulses, or thoughts to another individual or object
Rationalization.
Conceals the true motivations for actions, thoughts, or feelings through elaborate reassuring or self-serving but incorrect explanations
Repression
a process that forces unwanted material from the conscious to the unconscious.
psychosexual stages of development
sequence of phases a person passes through during development. Each stage is named for the location on the body where id gratification is maximal at that time.
oral stage
typically extending for approximately 2 years from birth, is characterized by a central focus on the need for food. mouth become the focus of libidinal drives and, therefore, the principal source of pleasure.
Fixation
suggesting that clients stop at or concentrate on a psychosexual stage because of a lack of appropriate gratification at that stage.
phallic stage
(from age 3 to age 5 or 6), which is characterized by early genital self-stimulation

subject of Oedipus rex
castration anxiety
the fear in young boys that they will be mutilated genitally because of their lust for their mothers.
Oedipus complex
the intrapsychic struggle within a young boy between his lust for his mother and his fear of castration because of it. The resolution of this complex results in development of the superego.
Electra Complex
a young girl's intrapsychic desire to replace her mother, possess her father, and acquire a penis. The resolution of this complex results in development of the superego.
neuroses (neurotic disorders)
all nonpsychotic psychological disorders resulted from underlying unconscious conflicts, the anxiety that resulted from those conflicts, and the implementation of ego defense mechanisms
Ego psychology
emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders to failure of the ego to manage impulses and internal conflicts. Also known as self-psychology.

Anna Freud
object relations
the study of how children incorporate the memories and values of people who are close and important to them.

Melanie Klein, Otto Kernberg
introjection
the process of incorporating memories and values of individuals who are important and close to the person.
collective unconscious
Accumulated wisdom of a culture collected and remembered across generations, a psychodynamic concept introduced by Carl Jung.
inferiority complex
feeling of being inferior to others while striving for superiority. concept created by Adler
free association
Psychoanalytic therapy technique intended to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. The patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring. Developed by Freud
dream analysis
Psychoanalytic therapy method in which dream content is examined as symbolic of id impulses and intra-psychic conflicts.

Freud
Psychoanalyst
Therapist who practices psychoanalysis after earning either an M.D. or a Ph.D. degree and receiving additional specialized postdoctoral training.
transference
patient starts relating to therapist as they did to important figures in their childhood, i.e. Parents
symptom substitution
psychodynamic assertion that if overt problem behavior (the symptom) is treated without eliminating the underlying conflict thought to be causing it, that conflict can reemerge in the form of new, perhaps worse, symptoms.
psychodynamic psychotherapy
Contemporary version of psychoanalysis that still emphasizes unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems

deemphasize the goal of personality reconstruction, focusing instead on relieving the suffering associated with psychological disorders.
neurosis
Obsolete psychodynamic term for a psychological disorder thought to result from an unconscious conflict and the anxiety it causes. Plural is neuroses.

no longer in DSM
self-actualizing
Process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences.
hierarchy of needs
Ranking of human necessities from basic food to self-actualization, proposed by Abraham Maslow.

beginning with food and sex and ranging upward to self-actualization, love, and self-esteem. Social such as friendship fall somewhere between. Maslow hypothesized that we cannot progress until we have satisfied at lower levels
person-centered therapy aka client-centered therapy
Carl Roger originated Therapy method in which the client, rather than the counselor, primarily directs the course of discussion, seeking self-discovery and self-responsibility.

point is to give the individual a chance to develop during the course of therapy, unfettered by threats to the self.

hoped-for result is that clients become more straightforward and honest with themselves and access their innate tendencies toward growth.
Unconditional positive regard
Acceptance by the counselor of the client's feelings and actions without judgment or condemnation.

critical to the humanistic approach
empathy
Condition of sharing and understanding the emotions of another person.
Behavioral model (also known as the cognitive-behavioral or social learning model)
Explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology.
classical conditioning
Fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neutral stimulus). After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the desired response.
conditioning
Process by which behaviors can be learned or modified through interaction with the environment.
stimulus generalization
patients often experience severe nausea and, occasionally, vomiting when they merely see the medical personnel who administered the chemotherapy or any equipment associated with the treatment ). For some patients, this reaction becomes associated with a variety of stimuli that evoke people or things present during chemotherapy—anybody in a nurse's uniform or even the sight of the hospital. The strength of the response to similar objects or people is usually a function of how similar these objects or people are.
unconditioned stimulus
Environmental event that would elicit a response in almost anyone and requires no learning. In classical conditioning, it is paired with a neutral stimulus
unconditioned response
In classical conditioning, the natural or un-learned reaction to the unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned stimulus
Environmental event that acquires the ability to elicit a learned response as a result of classical conditioning associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned response
Learned reaction, similar to the unconditioned response, elicited by a conditioned stimulus following classical conditioning.
extinction
Learning process in which a response maintained by reinforcement in operant conditioning or pairing in classical conditioning decreases when that reinforcement or pairing is removed; also the procedure of removing that reinforcement or pairing.
introspection
Early, nonscientific approach to the study of psychology involving systematic attempts to report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli evoked.

emphasized by Edward Titchener
John B Watson
founder of behaviorism.

decided that psychology no more needs introspection or other nonquantifiable methods

Albert rat experiment
Mary Cover Jones
student of Watson

thought that fear could be un-learned or extinguished.

worked with Peter to eliminate his fear of furry objects. decided to bring a white rabbit into the room where Peter was playing for a short time each day. arranged for other children, who did not fear rabbits, to be in the same room.

this person's research was largely ignored for two decades
systematic desensitization
Behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation.

technique pioneered by Joseph Wolpe

this approach called behavior therapy
operant conditioning
Fundamental behavioral learning process in which responses are modified by their consequences (reinforcers, punishers, extinction, and so on).

term coined by and principles laid out by BF Skinner
law of effect
Edward Thorndike's principle that behaviors are strengthened or weakened by the environmental events that follow them.
reinforcement
In operant conditioning, consequences for behavior that strengthen it or increase its frequency. involves the contingent delivery of a desired consequence or the contingent escape from an aversive consequence.
shaping
In operant conditioning, the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that response. Both desirable and undesirable behaviors may be learned in this manner.
Treating institutionalized patients as normally as possible and encouraging social interaction and relationship development _____

(a) behavioral model
(b) moral therapy
(c) psychoanalytic theory
(d) humanistic theory
(b) moral therapy
Hypnosis, psychoanalysis like free association and dream analysis, and balance of the id, ego, and superego ______

a) behavioral model
(b) moral therapy
(c) psychoanalytic theory
(d) humanistic theory
(c) psychoanalytic theory
Person-centered therapy with unconditional positive regard _____

a) behavioral model
(b) moral therapy
(c) psychoanalytic theory
(d) humanistic theory
(d) humanistic theory
Classical conditioning, systematic desensitization, and operant conditioning _____

a) behavioral model
(b) moral therapy
(c) psychoanalytic theory
(d) humanistic theory
a) behavioral model
Adolf Meyer
1866-1950

steadfastly emphasized the equal contributions of biological, psychological, and sociocultural determinism
Research about psychological disorders falls into three basic categories
description, causation, and treatment and outcome
Why is the scientific method so important in studying abnormal behavior?
With the increasing sophistication of our scientific tools, and new knowledge from cognitive science, behavioral science, and neuroscience, we now realize that no contribution to psychological disorders occurs in isolation. Our behavior, both normal and abnormal, is a product of continual interaction of psychological, biological, and social influences.
Dr. Roberts, a psychiatrist, often prescribes medication to his patients for their psychological problems. Dr. Roberts has what type of degree?

a) Ph.D.
b) M.D.
c) Psy.D.
d) Ed.D.
b) M.D.
All of the following are part of a clinical description EXCEPT:

a) thoughts.
b) feelings.
c) causes.
d) behaviors
c) causes
The _____ describes the number of people in a population who have a disorder, whereas the _____ describes how many new cases of a disorder occur within a given period.

a) ratio; prevalence
b) incidence; ratio
c) incidence; prevalence
d) prevalence; incidence
d) prevalence; incidence
Which of the following is NOT a historical model of abnormal behavior?

a) the psyche model
b) the supernatural model
c) the biological model
d) the psychological model
a) the psyche model
During the 19th century, the biological tradition of psychological disorders was supported by the discovery that a bacterial microorganism, _____, could result in psychotic symptoms and bizarre behaviors in advanced stages.

a) malaria
b) yellow fever
c) dengue
d) syphilis
d) syphilis
Which of the following describes the order in which biological treatments for mental disorders were introduced?

a) neuroleptic drug therapy, insulin therapy, electroconvulsive therapy

b) insulin therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, neuroleptic drug therapy

c) electroconvulsive therapy, neuroleptic drug therapy, insulin therapy

d) electroconvulsive therapy, insulin therapy, neuroleptic drug therapy
b) insulin therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, neuroleptic drug therapy
_____ is the release of tension following the disclosure of emotional trauma, whereas _____ is the increased understanding of current feelings and past events.

a) Insight; catharsis
b) Catharsis; insight
c) Catharsis; mediation
d) Mediation; catharsis
b) Catharsis; insight
Which of the following is an example of the Freudian defense mechanism known as displacement?

a) Terry despises the fact that his brother is a star athlete. Instead of letting his brother know how he feels, Terry cheers him on at every game.

b) Erika is attracted to her friend's husband and flirts with him. When her friend confronts her, Erika disagrees and refuses to believe what her friend is saying.

c) Adam is criticized by his teacher in front of other students. When he goes home, his dog runs to him, and Adam kicks the dog.

d) Judith feels uncomfortable around people with ethnic backgrounds different from her own. During a group discussion at work, she tells a coworker that his ideas are racist.
c) Adam is criticized by his teacher in front of other students. When he goes home, his dog runs to him, and Adam kicks the dog.
Before feeding her dog, Anna always gets his food out of the pantry. When she opens the pantry door, her dog begins to salivate. The dog's salivation is a(n):

a) unconditioned stimulus.
b) unconditioned response.
c) conditioned stimulus.
d) conditioned response.
d) conditioned response.
B. F. Skinner is known for introducing the concept of _____, the belief that behavior can influence and change the environment.

a) classical conditioning

b) systematic desensitization

c) operant conditioning

d) extinction
c) operant conditioning
According to the authors of your textbook, the definition of a psychological disorder is associated with:
a. stress.
b. impaired functioning.
c. culturally expected responses.
d. psychotic symptoms.
b. impaired functioning
Which of the following degrees is earned by a psychiatrist?
a. Ph.D.
b. M.D.
c. Ed.D.
d. Psy.D.
b. M.D
The biological and psychological models or theories of abnormality derived originally from the ancient Greek concept in which the


a. flow of bodily fluids affected behavior and personality.
b. female reproductive organs were associated with psychopathology.
c. movement of the planets influenced human behavior.
d. mind was considered separate from the body.
d. mind was considered separate from the body.
The historic belief that the movements and/or positions of the moon, the stars, and the planets influence human behavior is still held by followers of the pseudoscience called ________.
a. parapsychology
b. astronomy
c. astrology
d. graphology
c. astrology
In an attempt to rid the body of the excessive humors thought to be causing psychological disorders, physicians throughout history have used treatments such as:

a. drilling through the skull.
b. exorcism.
c. induced seizures.
d. bloodletting.
d. bloodletting
You have been asked to give a report on the mental hygiene movement and its foremost crusader Dorothea Dix, who campaigned for more humane treatment of the insane. After mentioning all of her accomplishments you note the unforeseen consequence of her efforts, namely:
a. an increase in the number of mental patients, resulting in insufficient staff to care for them.
b. a change from custodial care to moral therapy for institutionalized patients.
c. more patients receiving psychotherapy and fewer receiving medication.
d. a decrease in the number of mental patients in institutions, forcing many to close
a. an increase in the number of mental patients, resulting in insufficient staff to care for them.
According to psychoanalytic theory, the ________ develops early in life to insure that we can adapt to the demands of the real world while still finding ways to meet our basic needs.
a. superego
b. libido
c. ideal self
d. ego
d. ego
Mrs. B. received a very poor rating by her supervisor, who had been constantly criticizing her in front of her coworkers. When she got home, her kids ran up to greet her, all talking at once. She responded by yelling: "Leave me alone! Can't you see I'm tired?" According to psychoanalytic theory, this is an example of the defense mechanism known as:
a. rationalization.
b. repression.
c. projection.
d. displacement.
d. displacement
Most mental health professionals are aware that psychoanalysis as a treatment technique:
a. is basically unscientific.
b. is noted for consistency in analytic interpretation.
c. has been proven effective.
d. has been subject to careful measurement criteria.
a. is basically unscientific.
Someone you know has been having a lot of difficulty because of irrational fears. Knowing that you are studying abnormal psychology, this person asks if you know of an effective and well-established treatment. You advise her that ________, based on the mid 20th-century work of Joseph Wolpe, is a successful anxiety reduction procedure.

a. exorcism
b. person centered therapy
c. systematic desensitization
d. aversive conditioning
c. systematic desensitization
Dr. Smith is a psychotherapist who focuses on identifying and interpreting patients' conflicts and unconscious processes. Dr. Smith's therapy techniques tend to have a social and interpersonal focus. Patients typically meet with the doctor 1 or 2 times per week for 6 months to a year. Dr. Smith's style of therapy is best described as:

a. person-centered.
b. psychodynamic.
c. psychoanalytic.
d. behavioral.
b. psychodynamic
James was diagnosed with depression at the age of 24. Although he recovered after three months of treatment, James, now 25, has experienced a recurrence of depression. The course of his depression could best be described as:

. a. chronic.
b. episodic.
c. insidious.
d. time-limited.
b. episodic.
Dr. Roberts, a psychiatrist, often prescribes medication to his patients for their psychological problems. Dr. Roberts has what type of degree?

a. Ph.D.
b. Psy.D.
c. M.D.
d. Ed.D.
c. M.D.
During the 14th and 15th centuries, which of the following was viewed as an illness?

a. lethargy
b. anxiety
c. despair
d. possession
b. anxiety
Your professor returns the first exam to the students in your class. Everyone is quietly reviewing their tests, pleased by the high grades, until one student raises his voice in anger, saying, "This test was unfair. My grade should be higher!" Suddenly, most of the other students start talking in angry tones, claiming they deserved higher grades. Which of the following best describes this situation?

a. modeling
b. emotion contagion
c. tarantism
d. evil possession
b. emotion contagion
What is the correct order for stages of psychosexual development according to Freud's theory?

a. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
b. latency, oral, phallic, anal, genital
c. oral, phallic, anal, genital, latency
d. genital, anal, oral, phallic, latency
a. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Marshall, a three-year-old boy, cries and screams when another child plays with his toys. Based on Freudian theory, the part of the mind directing Marshall's behavior is the:

a. id.
b. ego.
c. superego.
d. conscience.
a. id.
The psychological disorders historically associated with a "wandering uterus" are the:

a. mood disorders.
b. personality disorders.
c. psychotic disorders.
d. somatoform disorders.
d. somatoform disorders
Who is most likely to have made the statement, "Your madness is caused by a physical problem"?

a. Josef Breuer
b. Dorothea Dix
c. John Grey
d. Anton Mesmer
c. John Grey
Who believed that the movements of the moon and stars had a profound effect on people's psychological functioning?
b. Paracelsus
The 19th century concept of moral therapy included all of the following EXCEPT:

a. teaching institutionalized patients to have good values and to be polite.
b. treating institutionalized patients as normally as possible.
c. reinforcing normal social interaction in institutionalized patients.
d. giving institutionalized patients many opportunities for social contact.
a. teaching institutionalized patients to have good values and to be polite.
After helping your neighbor bring her groceries in the house, your neighbor bakes you a delicious pie. The next time your neighbor is bringing groceries inside her house, you are likely to help her based on the principle of:

a. classical conditioning.
b. reinforcement.
c. punishment.
d. systematic desensitization
b. reinforcement
In the 1920s, Joseph von Meduna made an inaccurate observation that eventually led to the development of electroconvulsive therapy. What was that observation?

a. Insulin-induced convulsions can treat psychosis.
b. Electric shock can reduce depression.
c. Depressed people rarely have epilepsy.
d. Epileptics rarely have schizophrenia.
d. Epileptics rarely have schizophrenia
All of the following are part of a clinical description EXCEPT:

a. behaviors.
b. causes.
c. feelings.
d. thoughts.
b. causes
________ is the release of tension following the disclosure of emotional trauma, whereas ________ is the increased understanding of current feelings and past events.

a. Insight; catharsis
b. Catharsis; insight
c. Catharsis; mediation
d. Mediation; catharsis
b. Catharsis; insight
What class of drugs diminishes hallucinations and delusions?

a. anxiolytics
b. benzodiazepines
c. bromides
d. neuroleptics
d. neuroleptics
B.F. Skinner is known for introducing the concept of ________, the belief that behavior can influence and change the environment.

a. classical conditioning
b. systematic desensitization
c. operant conditioning
d. extinction
c. operant conditioning
Anna Freud was the first proponent of the modern field of:

a. ego psychology.
b. object relations.
c. humanistic psychology.
d. behaviorism.
a. ego psychology
During the Middle Ages, all of the following were treatments for possession EXCEPT:

a. a happy environment.
b. exorcism.
c. hanging over a pit of poisonous snakes.
d. dunkings in ice-cold water.
a. a happy environment
During the 19th century, the biological tradition of psychological disorders was supported by the discovery that a bacterial microorganism, ________, could cause psychotic symptoms and bizarre behaviors.

a. syphilis
b. yellow fever
c. ebola
d. dengue
a. syphilis
The only currently valid model of psychopathology is:

a. biological.
b. multidimensional.
c. psychological.
d. social
b. multidimensional
Mental health professionals who take a scientific approach to their clinical work are called:

a. clinical psychologists.
b. clinicians.
c. scientific psychopathologists.
d. scientist-practitioners.
d. scientist-practitioners
According to Jung, ________ is a wisdom accumulated by society and culture over time that is stored deep in individual memories.

a. intergenerational knowledge
b. self-actualization
c. the inferiority complex
d. the collective unconscious
d. the collective unconscious
In the 14th century, the behaviors associated with psychological disorders were thought to be caused by:

a. demons and witches.
b. conflicts about sex.
c. excess black humors.
d. poor parenting
a. demons and witches
A psychological disorder is characterized by:

a. a typical response to an abnormal event.
b. behavior that is expected in the culture.
c. psychological dysfunction and distress.
d. stability in everyday functioning
c. psychological dysfunction and distress
Darcy Smith, Ph.D., has a private practice in which she assesses and treats serious psychological disorders. She also teaches at a university. Dr. Smith is most likely to be a:

a. counseling psychologist.
b. clinical psychologist.
c. psychiatrist.
d. psychiatric social worker.
b. clinical psychologist
During the Middle Ages, snake pits were built in many institutions to treat:

a. anxiety.
b. despair.
c. lethargy.
d. possession.
d. possession.
All of the following were considered treatments for psychological disorders during the 14th century EXCEPT:

a. performing exorcism on the person.
b. shaving the pattern of a cross in the person's hair.
c. amputating the person's leg or arm.
d. securing the person to a wall
c. amputating the person's leg or arm
The ________ describes the number of people in a population who have a disorder, whereas the ________ describes how many new cases of a disorder occur within a given time period.

a. ratio; prevalence
b. incidence; ratio
c. incidence; prevalence
d. prevalence; incidence
d. prevalence; incidence
When King Charles VI "went mad" in the summer of 1392, what did most people think about his apparent mental illness?

a. He was faking it.
b. It was caused by lead poisoning.
c. It was caused by sorcery.
d. None of these.
c. It was caused by sorcery
All of the following are reasons that moral therapy and humane treatment declined after the middle of the 19th century EXCEPT:

a. the number of patients in institutions increased to the extent that moral therapy was no longer effective.
b. immigrant groups in institutions were routinely denied compassionate treatment.
c. other therapies, including brain surgery and electroconvulsive therapy, became popular alternatives.
d. mental illness was thought to be caused by brain pathology and was therefore incurable.
c. other therapies, including brain surgery and electroconvulsive therapy, became popular alternatives
Which of the following best describes the most valid model of psychopathology?

a. Abnormal behaviors are the result of defective processes in the nervous system and other parts of the body.
b. Problematic social interactions decrease self-confidence, leading to abnormal behaviors.
c. Abnormal behaviors are the product of the interaction between psychological, biological, and social influences.
d. Dysfunctional thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are caused by unresolved unconscious conflicts
c. Abnormal behaviors are the product of the interaction between psychological, biological, and social influences.
Modern day followers of astrology are most similar in their beliefs to:

a. Galen.
b. Hippocrates.
c. Paracelsus.
d. Sakel.
c. Paracelsus.
Anna Freud's beliefs about abnormal behavior differed from those of her father in that she focused on how:

a. poor resolution of conflicts within the id cause abnormal behavior.
b. weak incorporation of important people into one's memory leads to abnormality.
c. inappropriate defensive reactions of the ego lead to abnormal behavior.
d. failure to resolve psychosexual conflicts produces abnormal behavior.
c. inappropriate defensive reactions of the ego lead to abnormal behavior
Josef Breuer treated Anna O.'s "hysterical" symptoms using which of the following techniques?

a. Providing unconditional positive regard.
b. Hypnosis and talking through each symptom.
c. Positive reinforcement and shaping.
d. Systematic desensitization.
b. Hypnosis and talking through each symptom.
Jung's beliefs differed from those of Freud in all of the following ways EXCEPT:

a. Jung asserted that a person's unconscious includes wisdom accumulated by society and culture over time.
b. Jung believed that spiritual and religious drives are as important to human nature as sexual drives.
c. Jung focused on individuals' feelings of inferiority and drive toward feelings of superiority.
d. Jung argued that the basic quality of human nature is positive and that there is a drive toward self-actualization.
d. Jung argued that the basic quality of human nature is positive and that there is a drive toward self-actualization.
During his first visit to a clinical psychologist, David reports that he has come in because his friends are concerned about him. David says he has stopped going to school during the past month and has had trouble sleeping for the past two months. He also states that he is distressed over a recent breakup with his girlfriend. Which of the following is David's presenting problem?

a. David has gone through a breakup.
b. David has stopped attending school.
c. David has had trouble sleeping.
d. All of these.
d. All of these.
Hippocrates created several terms to refer to specific psychological symptoms or personality traits. Which of the following does NOT accurately pair a term with a symptom or trait?

a. Melancholic = depressive
b. Sanguine = pessimistic
c. Phlegmatic = calm under stress
d. Choleric = hot tempered
b. Sanguine = pessimistic
Sigmund Freud and ________ are credited with discovering the "unconscious mind."

a. Jean Charcot
b. Bertha Pappenheim
c. Josef Breuer
d. Anton Mesmer
c. Josef Breuer
Compared to psychoanalysts, psychodynamic psychotherapists are more likely to:

a. focus on quickly relieving a patient's suffering.
b. meet with each patient 4 or 5 times per week.
c. emphasize the goal of personality reconstruction.
d. work with patients for a period of 2 to 5 years.
a. focus on quickly relieving a patient's suffering
If a few people in class found something to be very funny and started laughing, the people around them would be likely to start laughing and feeling happy. This phenomenon is called:

a. emotion contagion.
b. suggestive laughter.
c. copycat happiness.
d. lunatic dispersion.
a. emotion contagion
Which of the following is NOT a scientist-practitioner?

a. A therapist who keeps up with the latest research findings and applies them to her assessment and treatment procedures.
b. A psychologist with a therapy practice who uses the techniques that she was taught in graduate school 20 years ago.
c. A therapist who regularly evaluates her own assessments and treatments to determine if they work.
d. A psychologist who conducts research on the effectiveness of various treatments for anxiety and mood disorders.
b) A psychologist with a therapy practice who uses the techniques that she was taught in graduate school 20 years ago
After the successful treatment of syphilis and malaria, many mental health professionals (incorrectly) assumed that all psychological disorders have biological causes and cures. Why did they believe this?

a. All schizophrenics were found to have had either a syphilis or malaria infection at some time before developing schizophrenia.
b. Syphilis and malaria infections produced psychological symptoms, which went away when these diseases were treated biologically.
c. Psychological disorders were shown to cause syphilis and malaria.
d. The treatments used for syphilis and malaria were useful for treating every kind of psychological problem.
b) Syphilis and malaria infections produced psychological symptoms, which went away when these diseases were treated biologically.
John Grey recommended what type of treatment for mentally ill patients?

a. rest and a healthy diet
b. insulin shock therapy
c. benzodiazepines
d. electroconvulsive therapy
a. rest and a healthy diet
Which of the following is NOT part of the definition of abnormal behavior?

a. Behavior that is not typical.
b. Behavior that is culturally expected.
c. Psychological dysfunction.
d. Distress or impairment in functioning
b. Behavior that is culturally expected
In the 1920s, the success of insulin therapy for treating psychosis was attributed to:

a. the increase in appetite produced by insulin.
b. the convulsions caused by high doses of insulin.
c. the coma produced by high doses of insulin.
d. a placebo effect.
b. the convulsions caused by high doses of insulin
Your new kitten is scratching on the furniture. Based on Skinner's ideas, which of the following methods would be the most effective way to eliminate this behavior?

a. Spray water on the kitten every time she scratches on the furniture.
b. Apply a foul-smelling odor to the furniture, in order to repel the kitten.
c. Give the kitten a treat when she is near the furniture without scratching it.
d. Make a loud noise every time the kitten gets close to the furniture
c. Give the kitten a treat when she is near the furniture without scratching it