45 terms

AP World History Period 3- Western Europe: Middle Ages

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Charlemange
King of the Franks from 768 to 814 and emporer of rome from 800 to 814. Ruled over 40 years. Most important leader of the Franks because he unified nearly all Christian lands of Europe into a single empire.
Charles Martel
"The Hammer" the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
Battle of Tours
(October 25, 732) Charles Martel, the Frankish Leader went against an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er Rahman; the Islamic army was defeated and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. The battle stopped the northward advancement from Spain
Crusades
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
"Children's Crusade:
young people from across europe decided to march to the holy land and reagin it. the pope sent some of them back home and others reached southern france where they were tricked onto boarding ships that carried them off into slavery and thousands were lost
Salvation
The forgiveness of sins and restoration of friendship with God, which can be done by God alone.
Feudalism vs Manoralism
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land vs paying money to the lord in exchange for protection and the use of his land to live on and farm.
Fiefdom
The estate or domain of a feudal lord; something over which one dominant person or group exercises control.
Vassal
(in the feudal system) a person granted the use of land, in return for rendering homage, fealty, and usually military service or its equivalent to a lord or other superior; feudal tenant.
Holy Roman Empire
A Germanic empire located chiefly in central Europe that began with the coronation of Charlemagne as Roman emperor in a.d. 800 (or, according to some historians, with the coronation of Otto the Great, king of Germany, in a.d. 962) and ended with the renunciation of the Roman imperial title by Francis II in 1806, and was regarded theoretically as the continuation of the Western Empire and as the temporal form of a universal dominion whose spiritual head was the pope.
Franks
A Germanic people who settled in the Roman province of Gaul (roughly the area now occupied by France) and established a great empire during the Middle Ages.
Anglo-Saxons
A united kingdom of the German Saxons and Angles (both of which had invaded England in the early 5th century); had been united under King Alfred the Great in the late 9th century; invaded by King William of Normandy in 1066, defeating King Harold (Battle of Hastings); intermarriage between the French Normans and Anglo Saxon nobles soon began.
King Harold
Defeated by William the Conqueror at Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings (1066)
led by William the conquerer, the Normands invaded and conquered England
Edward the Confessor
(1042-1066) The son of Aethelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy, he is usually regarded as the last king of the House of Wessex. His death launched a fight over the English monarchy between Harald and William the Bastard of Normandy.
Pope
Bishop of Rome who claimed authority over all other bishops; VERY POWERFUL in Middle Ages, Catholic Head of Church
Archbishop
A bishop of the highest, heading an archdiocese or province
Bishop
A successor of the Apostles who has received the fullness of Christ's priesthood
Clergy
A strong organization made up of different levels of officials that the church had built in the late years of the Roman Empire. Anyone who's a member of the church is in this
Priest
A member of the order of priesthood; co-workers with their bishops that form a unique sacerdotal college or presbyterium dedicated to assist their bishops in priestly service to the People of God.
Monasticism
A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
(Christian) Monks
Christian men who gave up there private possessions and devoted their lives to serving God in Monasteries.
(Christian) Nuns
Contemplative Christian women celibates who live in monasteries, dedicated to a life of prayer for the Church.
Lay Investiture
The appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers, often in exchange for temporal protection
Vikings (expeditions known as a-vikings)
Came from Scandanavia, also called Northmen or Norsemen, and Danes. Sea warriors, they built amazing ships that held 300 warriors, could hold 30 tons. Raided villages and monastaries. Also traded and farmed. Journeyed to Russia and Constantinople.
Longboats
Boats with shallow bows and trademark dragons or scary faces on the tip of the ship that were used by the Vikings
Newfoundland
An island of Canada that is off the east coast of mainland Canada; first explored by Lief Ericson (Viking)
Eric the Red
Sailed west to Iceland; thrown out of viking group;sailed to Greenland,cold;called Greenland to make it sound like a nice place so people from Iceland would come over
Lief Ericson
Was Eric the Red's Son sailed to North America North America in about 1000 and explored what is what is today called Newfoundland.
Chivalry
Code of conduct for knight and nobles during European feudalism.
Saladin
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
Richard I (the Lionhearted)
English King; went on the third Crusade; made treaty with Saladin
Magna Carta
(1215) a charter of liberties (freedoms) that King John "Lackland" of Englad was forced to sign; it made the king obey the same laws as the citizens of his kingdom
Parliament
A governing body during the Middle Ages that represented the privileged groups including the nobles and the church was called ____.
Hundred Years' War
(1337-1453) Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
Agincourt
A battle in northern France where heavily outnumbered English soldiers (mainly longbowmen) under King Henry V defeated the French army.
Longbow
A very useful weapon in the Hundred Years' War, English archers were able to fire 6 arrows a minute with enough force to pierce a inch of wood
Scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Vernacular Language
The common speech of the masses. They were the alternative to Latin, the language of the learned. The late Middle Ages saw the rise of this form of literature which began to flourish in the 14th century as is exemplified by the works of Petrarch (1304-74), Boccaccio (1313-75). and Chaucer (1342-1400). Though Latin remained the universal tongue of scholarship, politics, and the Church in Western Europe until after the Middle Ages and the Reformation.
Guild System
A system for specialized workers in the medieval times. It would set regulations for price and other factors to eliminate competition in the town, kept the number of people in a specific job limited, had to go through apprenticeship -> journey man ->master
Middle Class
A social and economic level between the wealthy and the poor.
Babylonian Captivity
(1309-1378) The seat of the papacy moved to Avignon, France by "force" of King Phillop. 6 Popes served in this time period.
Great Schism (1378)
A division in Church- rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon. later a 3rd pope was elected in Pisa
Anti-Semitism
Discrimination against Jews; found in Europe during Middle Ages
Black Death
A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351; Bubonic Plague