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Ovules are housed within the


What is unique to flowering plants

double fertilization

The male gametophytes of flowering plants are also referred to as

pollen grains

In flowering plants the integuments of the ovule develop into a

seed coat

A carpel is composed of

stigma, style, and ovary

In flowering plants one megaspore gives rise to ? nuclei

eight haploid

A stamen consists of

anther and filament

In angiosperms, pollination is the transfer of pollen grain to the ? of a flower on the same plant or another plant of the same species


Double fertilization in the life cycle of seed plants results in the production of a

diploid zygote and a triploid endosperm nucleua

Where is the megasporangium

within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower

Gymnosperms and angiosperms have what in common


What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, carpels, and pinecone scales

They are modified leaves

What adaptations should one expect of the seed coats of angiosperm species whose seeds are dispersed by animals

The seed coat should be able to withstand low pHs; The seed coat should be resistant to the animals' digestive enzymes

How have fruits contributed to the success of angiosperms

by facilitating dispersal of seeds

In onions (Allium), cells of the sporophyte have 16 chromosomes within each nucleus. How many chromosomes should be in a tube cell nucleus?


In onions (Allium), cells of the sporophyte have 16 chromosomes with each nucleus. How many chromosomes should be in an endosperm nucleus?


Hypothetically, one of the major benefits of double fertilization in angiosperms is to

coordinate developmental timing between the embryo and its food stores

Which of the flower parts develops into the pulp of a fleshy fruit


What should be expected of the fruit if the viscosity of Viscum seeds is primarily an adaptation for dispersal rather than an adaptation for infecting host plant tissues

It should be nutritious

The ? is the outmost layer of tissue


In leaves, chloroplasts are found in ?

palisade mesophyll

Guard cells regulate

the opening and closing of stomata

What is not a type of primary meristematic cell found in apical meristems

vascular cambium

What structure determines the direction of root growth by sensing gravity

root cap

T/F? Plant growth involves both the production of new cells by mitosis and the expansion of cell volume


Vascular cambium

a layer of undifferentiated cells that develops into secondary xylem and phloem

Why do plants need secondary growth

to provide structural support for the plant

What part of the plant remains on the plant even after several years of growth

primary xylem

T/F? Primary growth can occur at both the apical and lateral meristems at the tips of the roots and stems in a plant


Secondary growth NEVER occurs in


? provides cells for secondary growth

vascular cambium

Vascular cambium forms wood toward the stem's ? and secondary phloem toward the stem's ?


What is the function of cork

insulation and waterproofing

How is the supply of vascular cambium maintained

by the division of its cells


mutualistic associations of roots and fungi

In roots the ? forces water and solutes to pass through the plasma membranes of ? cells before entering the ?

Casparian strip...endodermis...xylem

Provides the major force for the movement of water and solutes from roots to leaves


? bonds are responsible for the cohesion of water molecules


Which tissue acts as a filter on the water absorbed by root hairs?


T/F? Root pressure can move water a long distance up the xylem because of the higher water potential of the xylem in comparison to the water potential in the surrounding cells


Pressure-flow hypothesis

the mechanism that explains the movement of sugars throughout a plant


area where sugars are used or stored

Xylem transport

Water and minerals move through the root cortex into the xylem and upward through the stem and into leaves

The rates of photosynthesis and transport in a plant on a dry cloudy day

Both the photosynthesis and transpiration rates are low

T/F? The rate of sugar transport in a plant depends on the rate of photosynthesis, the rate of transpiration, and the difference in turgor pressure between the source and the sink


What process is responsible for leaves being considered sugar sources


? transports sugars from leaves to, for example, taproots


Sugar moves from leaves into the ? of ? by ?

Sieve tube transport

Bulk flow

the water pressure that pushes water and sugar from sugar source to sugar sink

Water moves into phloem by


At a sugar sink, sugar is removed from phloem by

active transport

In a sugar sink, such as a taproot, sugar is converted into ?


? is responsible for the movement of sugars from leaves to taproots; ? is responsible for the movement of sugar from taproots to leaves

Bulk flow...bulk flow

The release of CO2 into the soil resule in the formation of ?

hydrogen ions and carbonate ions

What process is the source of the CO2 that root hairs release into the soil


The binding of H+ ions to soil particles

displaces mineral cations

What ion is most likely to be leached from the soil

chlorine ions

? decreases soil fertility

Acid precipitation

How do cations enter root hairs


What are the largest particles formed from the breakdown of rock


T/F? Soil texture affects the amount of water available to plants; water is held best by clay and sand particles


T/F? Plants use both active and passive transport ions against their concentration gradients


Nitrogens role as a plant nutrient

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil convert N2 to NH3. Nitrogen is a component of nucleic acids, proteins, hormones, and coenzymes. Nitrogen is a macronutrient in plants. Plant roots can only absorb nitrogen in the form of ammonium ions or nitrate ions. Nitrogen deficiency usually causes plant leaves to turn yellow

Why do fleshy fruits often have seeds with very tough seed coats

So the seeds can survive the mechanical forces and conditions in an animal's gut

What characteristics the fruit of seeds that are dispersed by the wind

They have structures to extend the distance they travel on the wind

T/F? Fruits provide food to the developing plant


Which part of a flower develops into the seed


Term that describes the portion of a peach that can be eaten by humans


T/F? The endosperm tissue that nourishes the developing plant has the same nutritional characteristics regardless of the plant species


Which part of a plant attracts pollinators


Which process involves the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma


T/F? The endosperm in a seed develops into the embryo


What term describes the male gametophytes of flowering plants

Pollen grains

Which structure formed by the male gametophyte allows sperm to reach the ovary of a flowering plant

Pollen tube

How is fertilization in flowering plants different from fertilization in other plant groups

One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form a cell that develops into endosperm

What is endosperm

via cotyledons, a source of food for the embryo

Fruits evolved primarily as structures specialized to ?

disperse seeds

The breakdown of chlorophyll reveals the ? pigments of a leaf


The formation of the abscission layer cuts off transport of substances to and from the leaf. As the concentration of sugar trapped within a leaf increases, ? pigments are produced


The protective layer that forms between the abscission layer and the stem consists of ?

densely colored cells filled with a waxy layer

After leaf abscission, growth will resume from the ?

axillary bud

? trees lose their leaves in preparation for winter


For a short-day, the ? is critical in determining if flowering will occur

minimum number of hours of darkness

For a long-day plant, the ? is critical in determining if flowering will occur

maximum number of hours of darkness

Day-neutral plants flower regardless of ?

day length, night length, or photoperiod

Which color of light do plants grow toward


What term describes the directed growth of plants in response to light


Which type of light is not absorbed strongly by photosynthetic pigments


T/F? A high level of far-red simulates shady conditions to a plant


What event could cause a plant that normally grows in a sunny habitat to dramatically elongate its stem

The plant was exposed to a high level of far-red light

How would a plant that normally grows in a shady habitat respond when exposed to a high level of far-red light

Its stem would not elongate because it grows well in far-red light

What is the physical basis of the phototrophic response

cell elongation

T/F? Auxin is asymmetrically distributed in shoots because the auxin on the side of the plant facing the source of light is destroyed


Where does the majority of stem growth in a plant occur

Apical meristem

Hormones can function

at very low concentrations

Which term describes the direction of auxin transport in a plant


How does auxin produce gravitropism in a plant that is placed on its side

Auxin accumulates on the lower surface of the root and inhibits elongation of cells in that region

How does auxin produce phototropism

Auxin accumulates in cells on the side of the plant opposite the source of light and stimulates their elongation

What organism does not cause disease in plants


Which structure does not protect stems and leaves from damage by herbivores


T/F? Plants do not produce many defenses against pathogens unless they are threatened because defensive structures and compounds require much energy and materials to produce and maintain


What is the initial localized response of a resistant plant to pathogen invasion

Hypersensitive response

Which compound is not used in the localized response to pathogen invasion to poison organisms that attack a plant

salicylic acid

How does a plant defend against herbivores

The hormone systemin is produced at the site of injury and signals the plant to produce proteinase inhibitors

What is derived from the ground tissue system


Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil

root hairs

A person working with plants may remove apical dominance by doing which of the following


? is to xylem as ? is to phloem

vessel element; sieve-tube member

CO2 enters the inner spaces of the lead through the


Relatively unspecialized cells that retain the ability to divide and perform most of the plant's metabolic functions of synthesis and storage

parenchyma cells

The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the


Plants contain meristems whose only function is to


What arises from lateral meristem activity

secondary xylem

The driving force that pushes the root tip through the soil is due primarily to

elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem

Which root tissues gives rise to lateral roots


Pores on the leaf surface that function in gas exchange are called


What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree

secondary xylem

"Totipotency" is a term used to describe the ability of a cell to give rise to a complete new organism. In plants, this means

cell differentiation depends largely on the control of gene expression

A plant developed a mineral deficiency after being treated with a fungicide. What is the most probable cause of the deficiency

Mycorrhizal fungi were killed

Root hairs are most important to a plant because they

increase the surface area for absorption

A water molecule could move all the way through a plant from soil to root to leaf to air and pass through a living cell only once. This living cell would be a part of which structure

the endodermis

What regulates the flow of water through the xylem

the evaporation of water from the leaves

What is responsible for the cohesion of water molecules

hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen atom of another water molecule

All of the following normally enter the plant through the roots except

carbon dioxide

What kind of day would result in the fastest delivery of water and minerals to the leaves of a tree

warm, dry day

Guard cells are the only cells in the epidermis that contain chloroplasts and can undergo photosynthesis. This is important because

ATP is required to power proton pumps in the guard cell membranes

Phloem transport of sucrose can be described as going from "source to sink." Which would not normally function as a sink

mature leaf

Explain the mass flow of materials in the phloem: water diffuses into the sieve tubes, leaf cells produce sugar by photosynthesis, solutes are actively transported into sieve tubes, sugar is transported from cell to cell in the leaf, sugar moves down the stem

Leaf cell produce sugar by photosynthesis, sugar is transported from cell to cell in the leaf, solutes are actively transported into sieve tubes, water diffuses into the sieve tubes, sugar moves down the stem

Water flows into the source end of a sieve tube because

sucrose has been actively transported into the sieve tube, making it hypertonic

If you wanted to increase the cation exchange and water retention capacity of loamy soil, what should you do

add clay to the soil

What is the fate of most of the water taken up by the plant

it is lost during transpiration

Why does over-watering a plant kill it

The roots are deprived of oxygen

The N-P-K percentages on a package of fertilizer refer to the

percentages of three important mineral nutrients

Most of the dry weight of a plant is the result of uptake of

CO2 through stoma

Which essential nutrients plays an essential role in the opening and closing of the stomatal aperture


What is the general role of micronutrients in plants

They are cofactors in enzymatic reactions

Why is nitrogen fixation such an important process

Fixed nitrogen is most often the limiting factor in plant growth

Among important crop plants, nitrogen-fiing root nodules are most commonly an attribute of


Dwarf mistletoe grows on many pine trees in the Rockies. Although the mistletoe is green, it is probably not sufficiently active in photosynthesis to produce all the sugar it needs. The mistletoe also produces haustoria. Thus dwarf mistletoe growing on pine trees is best classified as

a parasite

Carnivorous plants have evolved mechanisms that trap and digest small animals. The products of this digestion are used to supplement the plant's supply of


At the conclusion of meiosis in plants the end products are always four haploid


Correct sequence during the alternation of generations life cycle in a flowering plant

sporophyte, meiosis, gametophyte, gametes, fertilization, diploid zygote

What is true of most angiosperms

a triploid endosperm within the seed, and an ovary that becomes a fruit

Location of the microsporangia


A perfect flower is fertile, but may be either complete or incomplete. What correctly describes a perfect flower

It has both stamens and carpels

What type of plants is not able to self-pollinate


What is the male gametophyte of a flowering plant

pollen grain

Fruits develop from


What is the first step in the germination of a seed

imbibition of water

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