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organisms such as plants, which make their own food


organisms such as animals, that cannot use the sun's energy directly; obtain energy from the foods they consume

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

one of the principal chemical compounds that cells use to store and release energy


plant use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy carbohydrates-sugars and starches-and oxygen, a waste product


light-absorbing molecule plants gather


the plant's principal pigment


saclike photosynthetic membranes in chloroplasts


clusters where proteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments


the region outside the thylakoid membranes


carrier molecule that accepts and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion

light-dependent reactions

reactions that require light

ATP synthase

protein in cell membrane that spans the membrane and allow H+ ions to pass through it

Calvin cycle

when plants use the energy that ATP and NADPH contain to build high-energy compounds that can be stored for a long time

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