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Combo: 3 and 4
Terms in this set (86)
Study the brain and the rest of the nervous system in hopes of gaining a better understanding of normal behavior and of the outer reaches of what is possible for this organ. (includes cognitive, social, affective, and behavioral)
Central nervous system (CNS)
The portion of the nervous system consisting of the brains and spinal cord.
A collection of neurons and supportive tissue running from the base of the brain to the center of the back , protected by a column of bones (the spinal column)
Peripherals nervous system (PNS)
All portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord; it includes sensory and motor nerves. (divided into autonomic and somatic nervous system)
autonomic nervous system
the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the internal organs and glands (divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system)
Somatic nervous system
the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects to the sensory receptors and to skeletal muscles; sometimes called the skeletal nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
the subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes bodily resources and increases the output of energy during emotion and stress (gas)
parasympathetic nervous system
the subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that operates during relaxed states and that conserves energy (brake)
a cell that conducts electrochemical signals: the basic unit of the nervous system; also called a nerve cell. (made up of three parts)
Cells that supports, nurture, and insulate neurons, remove debris when neurons die, enhance the formation and maintenance of neural connections, and modify neuronal functioning.
a neuron's branches that receive information from other neuron's and transmit it toward the cell body
2) cell body
the part of the neuron that keeps it alive and determines whether or not it will fire
a neuron's extending fiber that conducts impulses away from that cell body and transmits them to other neurons
a fatty insulation that may surround the axon of a neuron (in the central nervous system: made up of gila/helps prevent interference between multiply messages in other cells)
a bundle of nerve fibers (axons and sometimes dendrites) in the peripheral nervous system
pairs of peripheral nerves in the human body
the production of new neurons form immature stem cells
immature cells that renew themselves and have the potential to develop into mature cells; given encouraging environments, stem cells from early embryos can develop into any cell type.
the site where transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another occurs; it includes the axon terminal, the synaptic cleft, and receptor sites in the membrane of the receiving cell.
a brief change in electrical voltage that occurs between the inside and the outside of an axon when a neuron is stimulated; it serves to produce an electrical impulse.
a chemical substance that is released by a transmitting neuron at the synapse and that alters the activity of the receiving neuron
chemical substances, secreted by organs called glands, that affect the functioning of other organs
internal organs that produce hormones and release them into the blood stream
Type of neurotransmitter that affects neurons involved in sleep, appetite, sensory perception, temp regulation, pain suppression, and mood.
Type of neurotransmitter that affects neurons involved in voluntary movement, attention, learning, memory, emotion, pleasure and reward, and possibly responses to novelty
Type of neurotransmitter that affects neurons involved in muscle action, arousal, vigilance, memory, and emotion.
Type of neurotransmitter that affects neurons involved in increasing heart rate, slowing of intestinal activity during stress, Learning, memory, dreaming, waking, and emotion.
The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
The major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain; it is released by about 90% of the brains neurons
a hormone as secreted by the pineal gland and that is involved in the regulation on daily it biological rhythms
A hormone that is secreted by the pituitary gland and that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth, facilitates the ejections of mild during nursing and seems to promote in both sexes attachment and trust in relationships
Hormones that are produced by the adrenal glands and that are involved emotion and stress
Hormones that regulate the development and functioning of reproductive organs and that stimulate the development of male and female sexual characteristics; they include androgens, estrogens, and progesterone.
Neurochemicals that modulate the functioning of neurons and neurotransmitters
Chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates; they are involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory, and are known technically as endogenous opioid peptides
The removal or disabling of a brain structure to gain better understanding of its function; this method is used only in animals
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
A method of stimulating brain cells using a powerful magnetic field produced by wire coil placed on a person's head; it can be used by researchers to temporarily inactivate neural circuits
Transcranial direct current stimulation
A technique that applies a very small electric current to stimulate or suppressed activity in parts of the cortex; it enables researchers to identify the functions of a particular area.
A recording of neural activity detected by electrodes
event-related potentials (ERP)
A technique that isolates the neural activity associated with specific stimulus
PET scan (positron-emission-tomography)
A method for analyzing biochemical activity in the brain. For example by using injections of a glucose-like substance containing a radioactive element
MRI (magnetic resonance imagining)
A method for studying body and brain tissue using magnetic fields and special radio receivers
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imagining)
A type of magnetic resonance imaging used to study brain activity associated with specific thoughts and behaviors
Localization of function
Specialization of particular brain areas of particular functions
The part of brain at the top of the spinal cord consisting of the medulla and the pons
A structure in the brain stem and involved in, among other things, sleeping, walking, and dreaming
A structure in brian stem responsible for certain automatic functions such as breathing and heart rate
Reticular activating system (RAS)
A dense network of neurons found in the core of the brain stem; it arouses the cortex and screens incoming information
A brain structure that regulates movement and balance, is involved in remembering simple skills and acquired reflexes, and plays a role in cognitive and emotional learning.
A brain structure that relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex
A brain structure involved in emotions and drives vital to survival; it regulates the autonomic nervous system
A small endocrine gland at the base of the brain that releases many hormones and regulates other endocrine glands
A brain structure involved in the arousal and regulation of emotions and the initial emotional response to sensory information
A brain structure involved in the storage of new information and memory
The largest brain structure, consisting of the upper part of the brain; divided into two hemispheres, it is in charge of most sensory, motor, and cognitive processes. From the Latin for "brain."
The two halves of the cerebrum
The bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
Specialization of the two cerebral hemispheres for particular operations
A collection of several thin layers of cells covering the cerebrum; it is largely responsible for higher mental functions. cortex is Latin for "bark" or "rind"
Lobes at the lower back part of the brain's cerebral cortex; they contain areas that receive visual information
Lobes at the top of the brain's cerebral cortex; they contain areas that receive information on pressure, pain, touch, and temperature as well as handle attention and awareness of spatial relationships
Lobes at the sides of the brain's cerebral cortex; they contain areas involved in hearing, memory, perception, emotion, and (in the left lobe typically) language comprehension.
Lobes of the front of the brain's cerebral cortex; they contain areas involved in short-term memory, higher-order thinking, initiative, social judgment and (in the left lobe typically) speech production.
emphasized genes and inborn characteristics affecting behavior/nature
emphasized learning and experience effecting behavior/nurture
a field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in social practices, perception, emotion responses, and other areas of behavior (evolutionary psychologist believe in a "long genetic leash")
an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with genetic contributions to individual differences in behavior and personality
the functional unit of heredity; they are composed of DNA and specify the structure of proteins
within every cell, rod-shaped structures that carry genes pg 70
the chromosomal molecule that transfers genetic characteristics by way of coded instructions for the structure of proteins
the full set of genes in each cell of an organism (with exception of sperm and egg cells), together with non-coding DNA located outside the genes
a segment of DNA that varies among individuals, has a known location on chromosomes, and can function as a genetic landmark for a gene involved in a physical or mental condition. EX: predisposition to depression
the study of stable changes in the expression of a a particular gene that occur without changes in DNA base sequences; the Greek prefix "epi" means "on top of" or "in addition to."
a change in gene frequencies within a population over many generations; a mechanism by which genetically influenced characteristics of a population may change
the evolutionary process in which individuals with genetically influenced traits that are adaptive in a particular environment tend to survive and to reproduce in greater numbers than other less adaptive individuals; as a result, their traits become more common in the population
innate human characteristics
2)an interest in novelty
3)a desire to explore and manipulate objects
4)an impulse to play and fool around
5)basic cogitative abilities
an interdisciplinary field that emphasizes evolutionary explanations of social behavior in animals, including human beings (socialbioligist believe in a short genetic leash)
disagree heartily about whether biology and evolution can help account for complex social customs
Issues with the sociobiological claim on sexual behavior (men desire to spread as much seed as possibly while women want a steady, dominate male to provide resources)
1) stereo types vs actual behavior (sexual behavior in human and animals can and does range very widely from this claim)
2) what people vs what they do (most studies are done with survey and the hypothetical answers can and are different from real decisions.
3)convenience vs representative sample (some studies did not include both men and women)
4)the fred flintstone problem (no need for sexual strategies when living in small groups, as people did, and already knowing who your partner is)
a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributed to genetic differences among individuals with in a group pg 84
1)an estimate of heritability applies only to a particular group living in a particular environment
2)heritability estimates do not apply to a specific person, only to variations with in a group of people
3) even highly heritable traits can be modified by the environment
heritability cont' 2
heritability asks how much genetics are playing a role in differences in a trait between people. This is not the same as asking how much genetics influences a trait in any one person.
fraternal (dizygotic) twins
twins that develop from two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperm; they are no more alike genetically than any other pair of siblings (share half genes)
identical (monozygotic) twins
twins that develop when a fertilized egg divides into two parts that develop into separate embryos (share all genes)
intelligence quotient (IQ)
a measure of intelligence originally computed by dividing a person's mental age by hos or her chronological age and multiplying that result by 100; it is now derived from norms provided for standardized intelligence tests
environments that hinder intelligence vs. environments that help it
environments that hinder: 1)poor prenatal care 2)malnutrition 3)exposure to toxins 4)stressful family circumstances vs. environments that help: 1)good health care and nutrition 2)mental enrichment in home and child care or school