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Diet and Exercise

Cardiovascular Disease

has decreased in the last 30 years; reversible w/ medication & life style modification; #1 cause of death in the USA(#2 cancer); Causes: high saturated fat & refined sugar, high cigarette use, low physical activity, not enough fruits & veggies; water soluble fibers are associated with risk reduction of this

leisure activities

ex. playing basketball weekly

non leisure activities

ex. walking vs. driving

chronic diseases

lifestyle changed can control/ prevent chronic diseases; caloric modification lowers chronic diseases; associated with diet and weight

Physiological age Vs. Chronological age

Physiological: age in terms of how free you are from diseases(wellness); factors that can reduce this age include: sleep, quality of food intake, exercise, not smoking, controlled stress, and moderate alcohol consumption. Chronological age: current age.


Healthy diet can prevent diseases; diseases affected by nutrition: type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension(high blood pressure), obesity, osteoporosis(lack of calcium), osteoarthritis, & some forms of cancer

life style disease

occur when one gets older and start seeing clinical symptoms


associated with heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer


are chemicals in foods that our bodies use for GROWTH and FUNCTION.

Organic Nutrients

carbon based; [CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, and PROTEINS (provide us with energy)], VITAMINS(helpful with use of chemicals)

Inorganic Nutrients



is a determining category in nutrition whether its organic or not


are nutrients required in relatively large amounts, that PROVIDE ENERGY to our bodies. Ex: CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS....; alcohol; macronutrients provide energy in form of NUTRIENTS


Primary source of energy for the body, composed of CARBON, HYDROGEN, & OXYGEN. ex:grains, veggies, etc.


major form of stored energy, important source of energy at rest and during low-intensity exercise, composed of CARBON, HYDROGEN(more than carbs and poteins), & OXYGEN, foods containing lipids also provide FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS and essential FATTY ACIDS


support tissue growth, repair, and maintenance, composed of CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, AND NITROGEN. they have the HIGHEST SATIETY value; myosis and actin proteins comprise muscle tissue; antibodies are proteins


include VITAMINS that assist in regulating body processes but do NOT provide energy to body, just are participants in producing VITAMINS and MINERALS


are critical in building and maintaining healthy bones and tissues, support immune system, ensure healthy vision, DO NOT SUPPLY ENERGY TO OUR BODIES

Fat Soluble Vitamins

stored, can lead to toxicity; ADEK

Water Soluble Vitamins

not stored, excreted; B&C


INORGANIC substances required for body processes


misrepresentation of a product, program, or service for financial gain (seen in media reports)

Endocrine system

plays a huge part in Digestion System; way in which different tissue organs in body communicate through hormones


where appetite is regulated; makes you feel hungry and feeling satiated; integrated signals from nerve celLs in other body regions and from chemical messengers; special CELLS LINING the STOMACH & SMALL INTESTINE send signals to the brain to indicate if they are full or empty


physiological drive for food


psychological desire to consume specific foods. ex. cravings, emotions, & also aroused by environmental cues


chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream by endocrine glands to help regulate body functions; they reach target cells that contain the receptor protein for that given hormone; are important in digestion and exercise. Proteins alter protein synthesis, rate of enzyme activity and secretory activity, and plasma membrane transport ; INCREASE MUSCLE GROWTH OR INCREASE IN BONE MASS

High Satiety

high-fat diets>high-carbohydrate diets; bulky meals high in fiber and water, solid foods>liquids


sends messages of anticipation such as your stomach growling and mouth watering

second messenger system

hormones bind to the receptor on the cell membrane for activation (the send out the message)


released throughout our lifetime; helps with synthesis of proteins and burning fat; Growth Hormone is secreted from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY in the Pituitary gland which was triggered by the GHRH(Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) in the hypothalamus. GH - Anabolic Action(promotes IGF-1(Insulin growth factor which has nothing to do with insulin) release that induces protein synthesis AND is ANTAGONIST TO INSULIN which induces lipolysis(fat breakdown); STIMULATES THE LIVER TO CONVERT GLYCOGEN TO GLUCOSE AND RELEASE INTO BLOODSTREAM

Catecholamines HORMONE

aka Epinephrine(adrenaline) & Nonepinephrine(not adrenaline);SHORT TERM STRESS; released during exercise; promotes vasodialation(the opening of blood vessels to allow blood flow), GLYCOGEN BREAKDOWN, increase heart rate and muscle activities; LIPOLYTIC(aka breakdown of fat); SNS(sympathetic nervous system) tells catecholamines to be released; secreted from the ADRENAL MEDULA in Adrenal Gland & NERVE ENDINGS; PREVENTS FUNCTION OF INSULIN AND RAISES SUGAR LEVEL, ^ FAT BREAKDOWN

Cortisol HORMONE

released during long term stress; secreted from the ADRENAL CORTEX in the Adrenal Gland(located on back of kidneys) TO ACT ON LIVER, MUSCLE, AND ADIPOLSE TISSUE; protects brain by exclusively keeping sugar for the brain, promotes breakdown of proteins, leads to NEGATIVE NITROGEN BALANCE, has anti-inflammatory actions(slows down immune system), acts as INSULIN ANTAGONIST; BAD because it BREAKS DOWN PROTEINS. In short: CRH is released from hypothalamus which then tells aCTH from anterior pituitary to release cortisol from the ADRENAL CORTEX.; INCREASES GLUCONEOGENESIS AND DECREASES MUSCLE GLUCOSE USE

Testosterone HORMONE

Released when EXERCISING, made of CHOLESTEROL, imp. for BONE GROWTH, increases muscle mass and strength, increases PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, certain amounts of testosterone gets converted to estrogen, too much can lead to the thinning of hair, low testosterone is correlated to prostate cancer,secreted from TESTES or PITUITARY GLAND

Estrogen HORMONE

Released when EXERCISING, made of CHOLESTEROL, imp. for BONE GROWTH, promotes VASALDIALATION, ANTIOXIDANT, has protective factors against heart problems but too much can lead to breast cancer, secreted from OVARIES or PITUITARY GLAND; keeps blood pressure low


helps BREAKDOWN FOOD, increases chemical reactions, REGULATES METABOLIC RATE, controlled by HYPOTHALAMUS, released based on how active you are, secreted from THYROID GLAND(associated with metabolism)


Promotes STORAGE OF FAT signaling muscles, liver & adipose tissue to take up glucose, PREVENTS FAT BREAKDOWN, antilipolytic hormone, lowers glucose levels by causing cells to absorb glucose from blood, it takes excess sugar to CELLS and LIVER, secreted from the BETA CELLS of PANCREAS; proteins may also signal insulin release

Glucagon HORMONE

INCREASES level of glucose in blood, increased during EXERCISE, promotes PROTEIN and FAT breakdown, secreted from ALPHA CELLS from PANCREAS which triggers the the release of GLUCOSE from the LIVER to the blood


increases calcium intake in bones, allows you deliver sugar to your muscles WITH OUT the use of INSULIN

Men and Women

have less than 10% of testosterone in their bodies


the only thing the brain can use; also known as GLUCOSE


maintaining a stable internal environment(glucose level btw 70-100mg/d), keeping amount of hormones equal. This process in DYNAMIC (&not static) because your body adjusts to the type of environment your in, made up of 3 components: receptor, integrator, and effector. ex's of homeostasis in action include: regulations of blood glucose, body temperature, blood pressure, etc.

1) Receptor

RECEIVES and MEASURES levels of hormones in the body

2) Integrator

receives info from Receptor and DECIDES whether its too high or too low, THEN SENDS INFO to effector


listens to integrator and MAKES CHANGES

Alpha Cells

from the PANCREAS release Glucagon (HORMONE) to INCREASE glucose level in blood

Beta Cells

from the PANCREAS release Insulin (HORMONE) to LOWER glucose level in blood


HIGH levels of glucose


LOW levels of glucose

Antagonists to Insulin

Growth HORMONE and Cortisol HORMONE


minimal digestions begins @ the mouth w/ saliva, large food molecules are broken down to smaller molecules, mechanically (chewing) and chemically (enzymes)


process of taking these molecules through the intestinal wall, across the cell membrane, and into the cells of the body; a small amount of absorption occurs in the stomach, occurs MAINLY IN THE SMALL INTESTINE(used to produce energy) when food finally becomes usable to the body; Mucosal membrane, the lining of the GI tract, has special structures to facilitate absorption


undigested portions of food and waste products are removed from the body

gastrointestinal (GI) tract

aka. digestive system, a series of organs arranged in a long tube that work together to precess foods. this tract includes: organs=stomach, intestines


aka ileocecal valve, muscles that control the passage of food material from one organ to the next. the PYLORIC SPHENCTER is located at end of stomach to connect it to the SI. ex. muscle contraction when you swallow, connects small intestine to large intestine, makes food circulate in stomach and prevents from rising

Cephalic Phase of digestion

hunger and appetite work together to prepare the GI tract for digestion, first thought of food (nervous system) stimulates the release of digestive juices; MECHANICAL DIGESTION

digestive juices

chemicals that are released from the stomach which are a type of protein important for digestion, they contain hydrochloric acid (HCI), denatures proteins, and activates pepsin(heart burn cause)

olfactory receptors

detect aromas of foods. ex)when smell stimulates the rain and creates thoughts of food


are complex chemicals that induce chemical changes in other substances to speed up bodily processes (breaks down large particles into smaller ones to make them easier to process); they also guide digestion through hydrolysis(the chemical breakdown of substances by adding water); specific to CARBOHYDRATE, PROTEIN, and FAT DIGESTION


secretes from the pancreas and neutralizes acidic chyme from coming into the small intestine. ex. neutralizes sour foods in our mouths.

antibodies and lysozyme

fight oral bacteria


moistens the food and oral cavity by "lubricating: the food

salivary amylase

begin STARCH digestion; produced in MOUTH; digests CARBOHYDRATES

salivary glands

1)amylase 2)bicarbonate 3)antibodies


covers the opening to the trachea during swallowing so food wont get into the airways.


is the muscular contractions that move food down through the GI tract. ex. arithmetic/ constant contraction of food; segmentation: mixing food and contact with digestive juices


food that is chewed inside your mouth


enzyme to digest protein as well as HCL (hydrochloric acid)/ indicates protein digestion, stomach acid helps pepsin in digestion; produced in STOMACH

gastric lipase

enzyme to digest fat/ indicates lipid digestion; produced in STOMACH

intrinsic factor

protein to absorb vitamin B12, important for PRODUCTION of BLOOD, lack of B12 can cause ANEMIA


large food storage, water, some minerals, drugs, & alcohol are ONLY absorbed here. carbohydrate and sugar breakdown and protein digestion starts here, everything else is absorbed in the SMALL INTESTINE, it also controls the rate in which food enters the small intestine.

small intestine

composed of three parts: 1)duodeum, 2)jejunmum, and 3)ileum. MOST DIGESTION(digestion finalizes here) and ABSORPTION take place here. it receives ENZYMES from PANCREAS. also contains the enzymes: lipase(D lipids), sucrase(sugar we eat)(D sucrose(enzyme)), maltase(D maltose), lactase(D lactose)

pancreatic lipase

digests fats(SI)

pancreatic amylase

digest carbohydrates(SI)


digests proteins (SI)

large intestine

aka colon, bacteria assists with final digestion, main function is to STORE undigested food material, ABSORB water, short chain fatty acids, and electrolytes; only water and chemicals are absorbed into the blood stream; feces forms here


RELEASES HORMONES AND ENZYMES; manufactures, holds, and secretes digestive enzymes; enzymes from here include: bicarbonate, proteases(digests proteins), elastase(D fibrous proteins), pancreatic lipase(D lipids), cholesterol esterase(D cholesterol), pancreatic amylase(D carbohydrates); site of action is in the small intestine.


production site: stomach stimulates secretion of HCI & Pepsin, STIMULATES gastric mobility, promotes proliferation of gastric mucosal cells


production site: small intestine, which targets the pancreas and the stomach; it P:stimiulates secretion of pancreatic bicarbonate, S:DECREASES gastic mobility

Cholecytokinin (DIGESTIVE HORMONE) aka CCK

production site: small intestine, and targets the pancreas, gallbladder, stomach; P:stimulates secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes, G:stimulates gallbladder contraction, S: slows gastric emptying

Gastric inhibitory peptide (DIGESTIVE HORMONE)

production site: small intestine, targets stomach and pancreas; s: inhibits gastric acid secretion, slows gastric emptying, p:stimulates insulin release

Gallbladder (organ)

accessory organ of digestion; stores bile, a greenish fluid produced by the LIVER, CCK signals the gallbladder to release bile, bile emulsifies the lipids which then are dispersed into smaller globules & become more accessible to digestive enzymes; pretty much, gallbladder is needed in the digestion of lipids


is cholesterol and we need this for lipid digestion; is secreted into intestine to aid in digestion of fat, produces in the LIVER


accessory organ of digestion; manufactures, holds, and secretes digestive enzymes; stores enzymes in the inactive form(pancreatic amylase digests carbohydrates, pancreatic lipase digests fats, protease digest proteins); insulin and glucagon(hormones) are produces to regulate blood glucose; BICARBONATE is secretes to neutralize chyme


pancreatic juice that neutralizes the acid from the stomach. keeps acid from burning small intestine and pepsin from digesting it. secreted form the PANCREAS


accessory organ for digestion; synthesizes chemicals for metabolism, (just know this: PRODUCES BILE FOR EMULSIFICATION OF FATS), receives the products of digestion via the portal vein, releases glucose from glycogen stores, STORES VITAMINS, manufactures blood proteins

Villi (definition within absorption)

are folds in the lining that allow it to absorb more nutrients(we have a lot of folds to increase surface area so that you have more contact with food); ENTEROCYTES are absorptive cells in the VILLI; CAPILLARIES and a LACTEAL (small lymph vessel) are inside each villus; the brush border is composed of MICROVILLI which greatly increases the surface area


travels through the lymphatic system; LACTEALS pick up most lipids and fat-soluble vitamins, lymph nodes are clusters of immune cells that filter microbes and other harmful agents(lymph is the liquid that picks up bacteria)

cardiovascular compliments digestive system

you eat food which gets into the blood, the heart then pumps the blood to circulate the nutrients

muscles of the GI tract

Peristalsis: moves intestinal contents, Segmentation: is a unique pattern of mobility.; Circular and longitudinal muscles contract and relax to mix the chyme and enhance its contact with digestive juices and enterocytes; voluntary muscles are in the mouth; INVOLUNTARY muscles take over in the GI tract


Complex sugar: starch(stored in plants)=amylase or amylopectin, glycogen, fiber


chewing stimulates secretion of amylase (breaks starch into polysacch and maltose), amylase is destroyed by acid in stomach, pancreatic amylase beak remaining starch into MALTOSE, final digestion occurs


absorbed monosaccharides from the small intestine travel to liver where converted to glucose and stored as glycogen; glucose, fructose, galactose; are primary used for a source of energy; SIMPLE CARB.YS


salivary amylase starts carb.ys digestion in mouth, carbohydrates in the large intestine are either fermented by bacteria or excreted; preffered energy source for nerve cells; Carb.ys digestion DOES NOT occur in stomach most chemical digestion is in small intestine; carbs are stored in lipids and muscles in form of glycogen;

Role of Carb.y's

Ketosis: fat breakdown during fasting forms ketones; excess ketones increase blood acidity and cause ketoacidosis; sufficient energy from carbohyfdrates prevents ketone production as alternate energy source


occurs when a diet is deficient in carbohydrate; body will make its own glucose from protein; amino acids from these proteins cannot be used to make new cells, repair tissue damage, support the immune system, or perform any of their other functions

High Fiber Diet

fiber binds to bile and both are excreted in feces(note that this is good because bile aids in fat digestion); less cholesterol is reabsorbed from the remaining bile; blood levels of cholesterol are reduced

Low-Fiber Diet

less fiber is present to bind to bile, so less bile is excreted in the feces; more cholesterol is reabsorbed from the remaining bile; blood levels of cholesterol are elevated

Alternative Sweeteners

Succharin (sweet and low); Acesulfame-K (Sunette and sweet one); Aspartame (Equal); Sucralose (Splenda); Truvia and PureVia(Stevia plant)

simple carbohydrates

contain 1/2 molecules; monosaccharides and disaccharides


contain 2 molecules; lactose, maltose, sucrose; SIMPLE CARB.YS

Complex Carbohydrates

aka polysaccharides; oligosaccharides=3-10 monosaccharides; most polysaccharides consist of hundreds to thousands of glucose molecules; ex:starch, glycogen, most fibers(are sugars); better for you because digestion burns calories


plants store carb.ys as starch; amylose-single chain of glucose(straight chain takes longer to digest), amylopectin-branched chain of glucose(fast for enzymes to get in between); sources: grains, legumes, fruits, and veggies


not found in food and therefore not a source of dietary carbohydrate(POLYSACCHARIDE)


composed of long polyssaccharide chains; dietary fibers are non digestible parts of plants; FUNCTIONAL FIBERS are non-digestible forms of carb.ys; Dietary fiber: also contains micronutrients which reduce insulin production); found in plants; also considered a type of sugar

Soluble Fibers

dissolve i water; viscous and gel- forming; fermentable, digested by intestinal bacteria; risk reduction of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease; found in citrus fruits, berries, oats, beans

insoluble fiber

healthy part of digestive system; do not dissolve in water, non viscous; cannot be fermented by bacteria in the colon, promote regular bowel movements, alleviate constipation, and reduces diverticulitis (inflammation of large intestine); sources: whole grains, seeds, fruits and veggies

Glycemic Index

a food's potencial to raise blood glucose; tell you how much and for how long flucose is increased in the blood after eating; also this does NOT measure ; MEASURES CARBS; fat nor quality of melecules

Glycemic Load

grams of carb.ys in a food are multiplied by the glycemic index

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

is 130 grams per day to supply adequate glucose to brain; Adequate Intake(AI) women: 25gl 38g for men


breaks starch into small molecules called polysaccharides and maltose. amylase is in the chewing

Ketones/ Ketosis

Fat breakdown during fasting forms is know as this; excess ketones increase blood acidity and cause ketoacidosis; carbs prevents this!

Insulin Index

-Proteins also trigger insulin release; it may be better to MEASURES INSULIN directly; -GI and insulin release may not be correlated.

Satiety Index Measure

-Satiety looks into food that makes you full and has a low caloric
intake. Focuses on full feeling rather then small portion sizes. High
SI foods are high in protein, fiber and water content.

1)Steroid Hormones

Made of lipids/ cholesterol (ex. testosterone and estrogen)

2)amino acids

aka protein hormones; majority of hormones are protein hormone; diff. but with specific functions

Carbohydrate Refinement

whole grain: keeps all if not most nutrients vitamins and minerals; enriched: processed foods that have some nutrients added back; refined: food where course parts have been removed and has a lot of added nutrients that seem normal; Fortified: processed that had added in NON-natural nutrients

gastric juices

are secreted from the stomach lining cells and stimulated by GASTRIN

intrinsic factor (ENZYME)

absorbs vitamin B12

Hydrocloric acid

activates pepsin which helps in the digestion of proteins


carbohydrates/proteins=4 carbs; fat=9 carbs; alcohol=7 carbs; we should get 130 g of carbys daily cause brain uses 60/70% aka glucose; to reduce caloric intake decrease fat and refined sugar intake

II. heart

has its own circulation(needs blood as well),

coronary arteries

left and right

Anterior interventricular artery

fat builds up here, heart attacks occur because of this vein that is wrapped around the heart. aka (left anterior descending?)


water(900% water), blood cells, hormones, enzymes, glucose, amino acids, fats.; when testing blood we look for adequate proportions. cells = to water.; most amino acids are water soluble; and lipids will rise to top because lipids are water INsoluble.

CVS functions

deliver oxygen and nutrients to body cells, remove end products of metabolism

heart operates in 2 phases

systole: heart is ejecting blood, diastole: heart relaxes and fills with blood, normal blood pressure; average 70 beats per minute, more athletic: slower your heart will beat; when relaxes blood enters heart(pressure decreases), contracts: pushes out(pressure increases). systole/diastole: (when measuring),

intima (EC) endothelial cells

small thin layer of cells that allow for smooth blood transfer.

tunica media ??? (SM)

made of smooth muscles; it actually controls the diameter of blood vessels, (the delivery of blood depends on this); plays a part in vassal constriction and dilation; when damaged patient starts to lose this regulation and wont get adequate supply of blood and can e problematic.

Adventitia (CT)

makes blood vessels easier to expand; when this is lost, vessels become rigid and it can burst(stroke)

Blood Vessels

having healthy blood vessels is extreamly important! lipids and fats (b/c they are water insoluble) start to cause problems by building up in veins.

heart attack

caused by ischemia(being deprived of nutrients); high blood cholesterol is a risk factor for atherosclerosis(hardening of the blood vessels due to poor diet and exercise); tends to occur at bifurcations;

stages of atherosclerosis

1st: Fatty streaks: cholesterol and lipid accumulate under the endothelium=> cholesterol is oxidized=> induces inflammation, WBC(white blood cells)=> foam cells, no flow impedance, (white blood cells start to attack the lipid build up in the veins) ;; intermediate lesion: excessive accumulation of lipid & smooth muscle cells from a fibrous lesion, estrogen is protective ;;; advanced lesion: calcification causes hardening of lesion (bad cause its causes the blood vessel to become hard/ rigid, last stage before heart attack occurs, when vessel ruptures. CAD: corinary artery diseases


is an antioxidant ??


used to diagnose heart problems

which of the following is not true about fat

A) not all types of fat are water soluble, B-fat is an essential macronutrient, **C*)hydrogen atoms arranged at the unsaturated part on the same sides is less favored than having they hydrogen atoms arranged at the unsaturated part on the opposite sides, D) cholesterol travel in lipoprotein vesicles in the blood, E)none. all of the above statements are true Answer is C.


don't need to know it you just know that it transfers from amino to a diff. acid group

notes to computer: Type 1 diabetes

<5%; manifests in teenage yrs;auto-immune disease: destruction of the pancreatic B-cells=> lac of insulin secretion; cannot be reversed; insulin injections required; has nothing to do with lifestyle

type 2 diabetes

develops because of lifestyle; >95%; "adult onset"; insulin's target tissues are resistant to the hormone; many require insulin; cells lose response to hormone; often accompanied by obesity; insulin resistance; prevents clearance of blood glucose and fails to suppress liver glucose output; physical inactivity increases the incident of type 2 diabetes

insulin resistance

state in which a given amount of insulin does not produce the expected response

stages of diabetes development

stage 1) insulin resistance [at this point patient is not diagnosed with diabetes because levels aren't as high] , 2) glucose and insulin increase , 3)pancreas shuts down insulin decreases, glucose increases; when at 126 mg/dl; (70-100 normal level.)

what is the critical stage among the 3? is diabetes type 2 reversible? what does metformin mean? how does diabetes affect kidneys?

stage: 3 to diagnose and stage two for already diabetes pacients.
metformin: meds taken by diabetics
type 1 diabetes is not reversible but type 2 is.
affects kidneys because kidneys purify the blood and because there are high levels of glucose, the kidneys get wholes and then this damages the kidneys, causeing other chemicals to not get excreted through purification.

How to prevent diabetes

medication; exercise(control diet)


macrovascular: a 2-4-fold increase in CV; microvascular: (kidney: in urine tests you can ) the leading cause of new cases of end stage renal disease; microvascular: the leading cause of new cases of blindness in working -aged adults; microvascular: the leading cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputations, going to interfere with nerve conscious.

myocardial infaction

fancy word for heart attack

physical inactivity and life style diseases

physical inactivity=> insulin resistance=> type 2 diabetes=>CVD

Obesity ad energy balance



NOT genetic; a lifestyle disease; males > 25% body fat; females > 30% fat; body mass index(BMI): a measure of adults weight in relation to his/her height, the weight in Kg divided by the square of height in meters;;


btw 25-29.9 is considered overweight; 30 or higher is considered obese; DOES NOT measure body fat.

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