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has decreased in the last 30 years; reversible w/ medication & life style modification; #1 cause of death in the USA(#2 cancer); Causes: high saturated fat & refined sugar, high cigarette use, low physical activity, not enough fruits & veggies; water soluble fibers are associated with risk reduction of this
lifestyle changed can control/ prevent chronic diseases; caloric modification lowers chronic diseases; associated with diet and weight
Physiological age Vs. Chronological age
Physiological: age in terms of how free you are from diseases(wellness); factors that can reduce this age include: sleep, quality of food intake, exercise, not smoking, controlled stress, and moderate alcohol consumption. Chronological age: current age.
Healthy diet can prevent diseases; diseases affected by nutrition: type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension(high blood pressure), obesity, osteoporosis(lack of calcium), osteoarthritis, & some forms of cancer
carbon based; [CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, and PROTEINS (provide us with energy)], VITAMINS(helpful with use of chemicals)
are nutrients required in relatively large amounts, that PROVIDE ENERGY to our bodies. Ex: CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS....; alcohol; macronutrients provide energy in form of NUTRIENTS
Primary source of energy for the body, composed of CARBON, HYDROGEN, & OXYGEN. ex:grains, veggies, etc.
major form of stored energy, important source of energy at rest and during low-intensity exercise, composed of CARBON, HYDROGEN(more than carbs and poteins), & OXYGEN, foods containing lipids also provide FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS and essential FATTY ACIDS
support tissue growth, repair, and maintenance, composed of CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, AND NITROGEN. they have the HIGHEST SATIETY value; myosis and actin proteins comprise muscle tissue; antibodies are proteins
include VITAMINS that assist in regulating body processes but do NOT provide energy to body, just are participants in producing VITAMINS and MINERALS
are critical in building and maintaining healthy bones and tissues, support immune system, ensure healthy vision, DO NOT SUPPLY ENERGY TO OUR BODIES
misrepresentation of a product, program, or service for financial gain (seen in media reports)
plays a huge part in Digestion System; way in which different tissue organs in body communicate through hormones
where appetite is regulated; makes you feel hungry and feeling satiated; integrated signals from nerve celLs in other body regions and from chemical messengers; special CELLS LINING the STOMACH & SMALL INTESTINE send signals to the brain to indicate if they are full or empty
psychological desire to consume specific foods. ex. cravings, emotions, & also aroused by environmental cues
chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream by endocrine glands to help regulate body functions; they reach target cells that contain the receptor protein for that given hormone; are important in digestion and exercise. Proteins alter protein synthesis, rate of enzyme activity and secretory activity, and plasma membrane transport ; INCREASE MUSCLE GROWTH OR INCREASE IN BONE MASS
high-fat diets>high-carbohydrate diets; bulky meals high in fiber and water, solid foods>liquids
second messenger system
hormones bind to the receptor on the cell membrane for activation (the send out the message)
released throughout our lifetime; helps with synthesis of proteins and burning fat; Growth Hormone is secreted from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY in the Pituitary gland which was triggered by the GHRH(Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) in the hypothalamus. GH - Anabolic Action(promotes IGF-1(Insulin growth factor which has nothing to do with insulin) release that induces protein synthesis AND is ANTAGONIST TO INSULIN which induces lipolysis(fat breakdown); STIMULATES THE LIVER TO CONVERT GLYCOGEN TO GLUCOSE AND RELEASE INTO BLOODSTREAM
aka Epinephrine(adrenaline) & Nonepinephrine(not adrenaline);SHORT TERM STRESS; released during exercise; promotes vasodialation(the opening of blood vessels to allow blood flow), GLYCOGEN BREAKDOWN, increase heart rate and muscle activities; LIPOLYTIC(aka breakdown of fat); SNS(sympathetic nervous system) tells catecholamines to be released; secreted from the ADRENAL MEDULA in Adrenal Gland & NERVE ENDINGS; PREVENTS FUNCTION OF INSULIN AND RAISES SUGAR LEVEL, ^ FAT BREAKDOWN
released during long term stress; secreted from the ADRENAL CORTEX in the Adrenal Gland(located on back of kidneys) TO ACT ON LIVER, MUSCLE, AND ADIPOLSE TISSUE; protects brain by exclusively keeping sugar for the brain, promotes breakdown of proteins, leads to NEGATIVE NITROGEN BALANCE, has anti-inflammatory actions(slows down immune system), acts as INSULIN ANTAGONIST; BAD because it BREAKS DOWN PROTEINS. In short: CRH is released from hypothalamus which then tells aCTH from anterior pituitary to release cortisol from the ADRENAL CORTEX.; INCREASES GLUCONEOGENESIS AND DECREASES MUSCLE GLUCOSE USE
Released when EXERCISING, made of CHOLESTEROL, imp. for BONE GROWTH, increases muscle mass and strength, increases PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, certain amounts of testosterone gets converted to estrogen, too much can lead to the thinning of hair, low testosterone is correlated to prostate cancer,secreted from TESTES or PITUITARY GLAND
Released when EXERCISING, made of CHOLESTEROL, imp. for BONE GROWTH, promotes VASALDIALATION, ANTIOXIDANT, has protective factors against heart problems but too much can lead to breast cancer, secreted from OVARIES or PITUITARY GLAND; keeps blood pressure low
helps BREAKDOWN FOOD, increases chemical reactions, REGULATES METABOLIC RATE, controlled by HYPOTHALAMUS, released based on how active you are, secreted from THYROID GLAND(associated with metabolism)
Promotes STORAGE OF FAT signaling muscles, liver & adipose tissue to take up glucose, PREVENTS FAT BREAKDOWN, antilipolytic hormone, lowers glucose levels by causing cells to absorb glucose from blood, it takes excess sugar to CELLS and LIVER, secreted from the BETA CELLS of PANCREAS; proteins may also signal insulin release
INCREASES level of glucose in blood, increased during EXERCISE, promotes PROTEIN and FAT breakdown, secreted from ALPHA CELLS from PANCREAS which triggers the the release of GLUCOSE from the LIVER to the blood
increases calcium intake in bones, allows you deliver sugar to your muscles WITH OUT the use of INSULIN
maintaining a stable internal environment(glucose level btw 70-100mg/d), keeping amount of hormones equal. This process in DYNAMIC (¬ static) because your body adjusts to the type of environment your in, made up of 3 components: receptor, integrator, and effector. ex's of homeostasis in action include: regulations of blood glucose, body temperature, blood pressure, etc.
receives info from Receptor and DECIDES whether its too high or too low, THEN SENDS INFO to effector
minimal digestions begins @ the mouth w/ saliva, large food molecules are broken down to smaller molecules, mechanically (chewing) and chemically (enzymes)
process of taking these molecules through the intestinal wall, across the cell membrane, and into the cells of the body; a small amount of absorption occurs in the stomach, occurs MAINLY IN THE SMALL INTESTINE(used to produce energy) when food finally becomes usable to the body; Mucosal membrane, the lining of the GI tract, has special structures to facilitate absorption
gastrointestinal (GI) tract
aka. digestive system, a series of organs arranged in a long tube that work together to precess foods. this tract includes: organs=stomach, intestines
aka ileocecal valve, muscles that control the passage of food material from one organ to the next. the PYLORIC SPHENCTER is located at end of stomach to connect it to the SI. ex. muscle contraction when you swallow, connects small intestine to large intestine, makes food circulate in stomach and prevents from rising
Cephalic Phase of digestion
hunger and appetite work together to prepare the GI tract for digestion, first thought of food (nervous system) stimulates the release of digestive juices; MECHANICAL DIGESTION
chemicals that are released from the stomach which are a type of protein important for digestion, they contain hydrochloric acid (HCI), denatures proteins, and activates pepsin(heart burn cause)
detect aromas of foods. ex)when smell stimulates the rain and creates thoughts of food
are complex chemicals that induce chemical changes in other substances to speed up bodily processes (breaks down large particles into smaller ones to make them easier to process); they also guide digestion through hydrolysis(the chemical breakdown of substances by adding water); specific to CARBOHYDRATE, PROTEIN, and FAT DIGESTION
secretes from the pancreas and neutralizes acidic chyme from coming into the small intestine. ex. neutralizes sour foods in our mouths.
is the muscular contractions that move food down through the GI tract. ex. arithmetic/ constant contraction of food; segmentation: mixing food and contact with digestive juices
enzyme to digest protein as well as HCL (hydrochloric acid)/ indicates protein digestion, stomach acid helps pepsin in digestion; produced in STOMACH
protein to absorb vitamin B12, important for PRODUCTION of BLOOD, lack of B12 can cause ANEMIA
large food storage, water, some minerals, drugs, & alcohol are ONLY absorbed here. carbohydrate and sugar breakdown and protein digestion starts here, everything else is absorbed in the SMALL INTESTINE, it also controls the rate in which food enters the small intestine.
composed of three parts: 1)duodeum, 2)jejunmum, and 3)ileum. MOST DIGESTION(digestion finalizes here) and ABSORPTION take place here. it receives ENZYMES from PANCREAS. also contains the enzymes: lipase(D lipids), sucrase(sugar we eat)(D sucrose(enzyme)), maltase(D maltose), lactase(D lactose)
aka colon, bacteria assists with final digestion, main function is to STORE undigested food material, ABSORB water, short chain fatty acids, and electrolytes; only water and chemicals are absorbed into the blood stream; feces forms here
RELEASES HORMONES AND ENZYMES; manufactures, holds, and secretes digestive enzymes; enzymes from here include: bicarbonate, proteases(digests proteins), elastase(D fibrous proteins), pancreatic lipase(D lipids), cholesterol esterase(D cholesterol), pancreatic amylase(D carbohydrates); site of action is in the small intestine.
production site: stomach stimulates secretion of HCI & Pepsin, STIMULATES gastric mobility, promotes proliferation of gastric mucosal cells
production site: small intestine, which targets the pancreas and the stomach; it P:stimiulates secretion of pancreatic bicarbonate, S:DECREASES gastic mobility
Cholecytokinin (DIGESTIVE HORMONE) aka CCK
production site: small intestine, and targets the pancreas, gallbladder, stomach; P:stimulates secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes, G:stimulates gallbladder contraction, S: slows gastric emptying
Gastric inhibitory peptide (DIGESTIVE HORMONE)
production site: small intestine, targets stomach and pancreas; s: inhibits gastric acid secretion, slows gastric emptying, p:stimulates insulin release
accessory organ of digestion; stores bile, a greenish fluid produced by the LIVER, CCK signals the gallbladder to release bile, bile emulsifies the lipids which then are dispersed into smaller globules & become more accessible to digestive enzymes; pretty much, gallbladder is needed in the digestion of lipids
is cholesterol and we need this for lipid digestion; is secreted into intestine to aid in digestion of fat, produces in the LIVER
accessory organ of digestion; manufactures, holds, and secretes digestive enzymes; stores enzymes in the inactive form(pancreatic amylase digests carbohydrates, pancreatic lipase digests fats, protease digest proteins); insulin and glucagon(hormones) are produces to regulate blood glucose; BICARBONATE is secretes to neutralize chyme
pancreatic juice that neutralizes the acid from the stomach. keeps acid from burning small intestine and pepsin from digesting it. secreted form the PANCREAS
accessory organ for digestion; synthesizes chemicals for metabolism, (just know this: PRODUCES BILE FOR EMULSIFICATION OF FATS), receives the products of digestion via the portal vein, releases glucose from glycogen stores, STORES VITAMINS, manufactures blood proteins
Villi (definition within absorption)
are folds in the lining that allow it to absorb more nutrients(we have a lot of folds to increase surface area so that you have more contact with food); ENTEROCYTES are absorptive cells in the VILLI; CAPILLARIES and a LACTEAL (small lymph vessel) are inside each villus; the brush border is composed of MICROVILLI which greatly increases the surface area
travels through the lymphatic system; LACTEALS pick up most lipids and fat-soluble vitamins, lymph nodes are clusters of immune cells that filter microbes and other harmful agents(lymph is the liquid that picks up bacteria)
cardiovascular compliments digestive system
you eat food which gets into the blood, the heart then pumps the blood to circulate the nutrients
muscles of the GI tract
Peristalsis: moves intestinal contents, Segmentation: is a unique pattern of mobility.; Circular and longitudinal muscles contract and relax to mix the chyme and enhance its contact with digestive juices and enterocytes; voluntary muscles are in the mouth; INVOLUNTARY muscles take over in the GI tract
chewing stimulates secretion of amylase (breaks starch into polysacch and maltose), amylase is destroyed by acid in stomach, pancreatic amylase beak remaining starch into MALTOSE, final digestion occurs
absorbed monosaccharides from the small intestine travel to liver where converted to glucose and stored as glycogen; glucose, fructose, galactose; are primary used for a source of energy; SIMPLE CARB.YS
salivary amylase starts carb.ys digestion in mouth, carbohydrates in the large intestine are either fermented by bacteria or excreted; preffered energy source for nerve cells; Carb.ys digestion DOES NOT occur in stomach most chemical digestion is in small intestine; carbs are stored in lipids and muscles in form of glycogen;
Role of Carb.y's
Ketosis: fat breakdown during fasting forms ketones; excess ketones increase blood acidity and cause ketoacidosis; sufficient energy from carbohyfdrates prevents ketone production as alternate energy source
occurs when a diet is deficient in carbohydrate; body will make its own glucose from protein; amino acids from these proteins cannot be used to make new cells, repair tissue damage, support the immune system, or perform any of their other functions
High Fiber Diet
fiber binds to bile and both are excreted in feces(note that this is good because bile aids in fat digestion); less cholesterol is reabsorbed from the remaining bile; blood levels of cholesterol are reduced
less fiber is present to bind to bile, so less bile is excreted in the feces; more cholesterol is reabsorbed from the remaining bile; blood levels of cholesterol are elevated
Succharin (sweet and low); Acesulfame-K (Sunette and sweet one); Aspartame (Equal); Sucralose (Splenda); Truvia and PureVia(Stevia plant)
aka polysaccharides; oligosaccharides=3-10 monosaccharides; most polysaccharides consist of hundreds to thousands of glucose molecules; ex:starch, glycogen, most fibers(are sugars); better for you because digestion burns calories
plants store carb.ys as starch; amylose-single chain of glucose(straight chain takes longer to digest), amylopectin-branched chain of glucose(fast for enzymes to get in between); sources: grains, legumes, fruits, and veggies
Glycogen (COMPLEX CARB.YS)
not found in food and therefore not a source of dietary carbohydrate(POLYSACCHARIDE)
Fiber (COMPLEX CARB.YS)
composed of long polyssaccharide chains; dietary fibers are non digestible parts of plants; FUNCTIONAL FIBERS are non-digestible forms of carb.ys; Dietary fiber: also contains micronutrients which reduce insulin production); found in plants; also considered a type of sugar
dissolve i water; viscous and gel- forming; fermentable, digested by intestinal bacteria; risk reduction of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease; found in citrus fruits, berries, oats, beans
healthy part of digestive system; do not dissolve in water, non viscous; cannot be fermented by bacteria in the colon, promote regular bowel movements, alleviate constipation, and reduces diverticulitis (inflammation of large intestine); sources: whole grains, seeds, fruits and veggies
a food's potencial to raise blood glucose; tell you how much and for how long flucose is increased in the blood after eating; also this does NOT measure ; MEASURES CARBS; fat nor quality of melecules
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
is 130 grams per day to supply adequate glucose to brain; Adequate Intake(AI) women: 25gl 38g for men
breaks starch into small molecules called polysaccharides and maltose. amylase is in the chewing
Fat breakdown during fasting forms is know as this; excess ketones increase blood acidity and cause ketoacidosis; carbs prevents this!
-Proteins also trigger insulin release; it may be better to MEASURES INSULIN directly; -GI and insulin release may not be correlated.
Satiety Index Measure
-Satiety looks into food that makes you full and has a low caloric
intake. Focuses on full feeling rather then small portion sizes. High
SI foods are high in protein, fiber and water content.
aka protein hormones; majority of hormones are protein hormone; diff. but with specific functions
whole grain: keeps all if not most nutrients vitamins and minerals; enriched: processed foods that have some nutrients added back; refined: food where course parts have been removed and has a lot of added nutrients that seem normal; Fortified: processed that had added in NON-natural nutrients
carbohydrates/proteins=4 carbs; fat=9 carbs; alcohol=7 carbs; we should get 130 g of carbys daily cause brain uses 60/70% aka glucose; to reduce caloric intake decrease fat and refined sugar intake
Anterior interventricular artery
fat builds up here, heart attacks occur because of this vein that is wrapped around the heart. aka (left anterior descending?)
water(900% water), blood cells, hormones, enzymes, glucose, amino acids, fats.; when testing blood we look for adequate proportions. cells = to water.; most amino acids are water soluble; and lipids will rise to top because lipids are water INsoluble.
heart operates in 2 phases
systole: heart is ejecting blood, diastole: heart relaxes and fills with blood, normal blood pressure; average 70 beats per minute, more athletic: slower your heart will beat; when relaxes blood enters heart(pressure decreases), contracts: pushes out(pressure increases). systole/diastole: (when measuring),
tunica media ??? (SM)
made of smooth muscles; it actually controls the diameter of blood vessels, (the delivery of blood depends on this); plays a part in vassal constriction and dilation; when damaged patient starts to lose this regulation and wont get adequate supply of blood and can e problematic.
makes blood vessels easier to expand; when this is lost, vessels become rigid and it can burst(stroke)
having healthy blood vessels is extreamly important! lipids and fats (b/c they are water insoluble) start to cause problems by building up in veins.
caused by ischemia(being deprived of nutrients); high blood cholesterol is a risk factor for atherosclerosis(hardening of the blood vessels due to poor diet and exercise); tends to occur at bifurcations;
stages of atherosclerosis
1st: Fatty streaks: cholesterol and lipid accumulate under the endothelium=> cholesterol is oxidized=> induces inflammation, WBC(white blood cells)=> foam cells, no flow impedance, (white blood cells start to attack the lipid build up in the veins) ;; intermediate lesion: excessive accumulation of lipid & smooth muscle cells from a fibrous lesion, estrogen is protective ;;; advanced lesion: calcification causes hardening of lesion (bad cause its causes the blood vessel to become hard/ rigid, last stage before heart attack occurs, when vessel ruptures. CAD: corinary artery diseases
which of the following is not true about fat
A) not all types of fat are water soluble, B-fat is an essential macronutrient, **C*)hydrogen atoms arranged at the unsaturated part on the same sides is less favored than having they hydrogen atoms arranged at the unsaturated part on the opposite sides, D) cholesterol travel in lipoprotein vesicles in the blood, E)none. all of the above statements are true Answer is C.
don't need to know it you just know that it transfers from amino to a diff. acid group
notes to computer: Type 1 diabetes
<5%; manifests in teenage yrs;auto-immune disease: destruction of the pancreatic B-cells=> lac of insulin secretion; cannot be reversed; insulin injections required; has nothing to do with lifestyle
type 2 diabetes
develops because of lifestyle; >95%; "adult onset"; insulin's target tissues are resistant to the hormone; many require insulin; cells lose response to hormone; often accompanied by obesity; insulin resistance; prevents clearance of blood glucose and fails to suppress liver glucose output; physical inactivity increases the incident of type 2 diabetes
stages of diabetes development
stage 1) insulin resistance [at this point patient is not diagnosed with diabetes because levels aren't as high] , 2) glucose and insulin increase , 3)pancreas shuts down insulin decreases, glucose increases; when at 126 mg/dl; (70-100 normal level.)
what is the critical stage among the 3? is diabetes type 2 reversible? what does metformin mean? how does diabetes affect kidneys?
stage: 3 to diagnose and stage two for already diabetes pacients.
metformin: meds taken by diabetics
type 1 diabetes is not reversible but type 2 is.
affects kidneys because kidneys purify the blood and because there are high levels of glucose, the kidneys get wholes and then this damages the kidneys, causeing other chemicals to not get excreted through purification.
macrovascular: a 2-4-fold increase in CV; microvascular: (kidney: in urine tests you can ) the leading cause of new cases of end stage renal disease; microvascular: the leading cause of new cases of blindness in working -aged adults; microvascular: the leading cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputations, going to interfere with nerve conscious.
physical inactivity and life style diseases
physical inactivity=> insulin resistance=> type 2 diabetes=>CVD
NOT genetic; a lifestyle disease; males > 25% body fat; females > 30% fat; body mass index(BMI): a measure of adults weight in relation to his/her height, the weight in Kg divided by the square of height in meters;;
btw 25-29.9 is considered overweight; 30 or higher is considered obese; DOES NOT measure body fat.
where is fat stored?
high BMI means they are depositing high levels of fat in body, ;visceral(correlated with heath problems) vs. subcutaneous fat(we store fat underneath skin; cutaneous means skin; some fat build up around eyes, around kidneys that anchor our organs; fat also stored in muscle cells and around them) excess store will be stored any place there is room for it. this fat is very bad and is called visceral fat: can build up around organs, heart, ect. Visceral fat is more dangerous than subcutaneous fat. ;;;males store fat mainly in belly and ladies in hips
Leptin: tells you to stop eating; adipocyytes(aka fat tissues that store fat in body); Neuropeptide Y: hypothalamus realeases Neuropeptide Y; is released to make you feel hungry, wants you to eat.
types of obesity
android- _______; gynoid: lower body fat(location wise), accumulation of fat in the femoral and gluteal areas, more resistant to lipolytic stimuli-hormonal effect(catecholamines-epinephrine)
hypertrophy: fat cells become larger in obese individuals; hyperplasia: the number of fat cells increases.
we need energy for basic metaboic actions; chemical reactions require energy; energy= fuel; food is a source of energy: cab, sugar.; ingredients: food and oxygen allow us to produce energy.
we have two forms of energy sources: primarily(and what we want: lipids and carbs).
energy protein, ATP is made in cells,
ATP is usable form of energy in cells, ex. converting fatty acid to ATP.;CO2 comes from the production of energy(oxygen and food), for each glucose molecules we produce about 30 ATP.; along the way ATP produces heat as well; lipids produce more energy than glucose.****
2.chemical energy/ chemical work
using energy to build large molecules aka construction of molecules; taking energy and storing it; ex. going from glucose to glycogen, when you eat fatty acids we store them as tryglicerides
without oxygen we produce minimal amount of ATP, occurs inside cell cytoplasm where carbohydrate metabolism occurs
with oxygen, we produce alot of ATP; occurs in mitochondria where carbohydrate metabolism occurs
lipo protein lipase (LPL)
located inside blood vessels; sensitive to insulin; it makes us store fat as well; this is activated by insulin
Hormone sensative lipase (HSL)
works opposite to lipo protein lipase; makes us breakdown fat; is activated by epinephrine and/ or non epinephrine (catecholimines ). fat in adipose tissue is bad because we store it, and if its stored in muscles its better so we can break it down.
we want more epinephrine than insulin cause then we will break down more than we will store. think of it as a less than greater than ratio, who wins?
high intensity exercise
lasts for short period of time, here we use more carbohydrates as a source of energy
genotype(genetic makeup, performance potential) + environmental factors( training, nutrition, psychological factors, outside environment, rest/recuperation)= phenotype(performance capacity)
fixed variables (cant change)
skill, flexibility, height body size, sex, fiber type, muscle architecture (origin/ insertion), responder/ non-responder (genetics)
stress applied to the body, frequency- how often, d/wk,workouts/d; intensity- how hard, % of 1RM, %HRmax, %VO2 ma; duration- how long, min or hr/d.....;body response to overload is adaptation
when you work out and are sore, you can't do the same exercise and body goes int this alarm shock, but adaptability level starts to increase(meaning that your body will adjust to this new routine and store more energy so that it will have enough next time you work out, this is the reason as to why you are able to do the work out easily after done many times.
physiological changes with training, CVS, muscloskeletal system, body composition (lipid profile), use of energy source, oxidative stress level(with exercise you decrease these levels), decreased inflammation; athlestes have always lower resting heart reate; at rest you use carbs and lipids for energy
factors contributing to adaptations
overload(FID); program duration, initial fitness level, geneticss, gender, age
periodization of training
packaging of workouts within weekly/ monthly segments: season training. working different muscle groups, minimize, injury, increase adaptation; "shotgun approach" (when someone imitates the other person not knowing if the workout is even beneficial o the person), cannot maximally enhance many training systems simultaneously
endurance training (aka low intensity)
joints or muscles taken through thousands of repetitions, small force production: 10% of max strength
strength training zone (high intensity)
1-20 repetitions(low repetitions); opposite of endurance training
rate of progression
if sedentary. any overload elicits adaptation. resistance training for the first time: contracting almost lots of muscles at once, neuromuscular adaptations and learning; to attain fitness the intensity level has to be modified: 5% rule-every time you go to the gym you are going to increase your workout by 5%.(this is not realistic however)
genotype important: responder vs. nonresponder; exercise prescription optimal for 1 person may not be for another
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