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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

- Suggests that before more sophisticated, higher-order needs can be met, certain primary needs must be satisfied
Love and belongingness
Safety needs
Physiological needs

Primary drive

Basic drives related to biological needs of the body or the species as a whole

Secondary drive

Needs are brought about by prior experience and learning

Drive-reduction approach

Suggest that a lack of some basic biological requirement such as water produces a drive to obtain that requirement


The factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms


Inborn patters of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned


A basic motivational phenomena that underlies primary drives and involves the body's tendency to maintain a steady internal state

Arousal approach

Seek to explain behavior in which the goal is to maintain or increase excitement

Incentive approach

Suggest that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals, or incentives

Cognitive approach

Suggest that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, expectations, and goals
- Intrinsic motivation
- Extrinsic motivation

Need for affiliation

An interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people

Need for achievement

A stable, learned characteristic in which satisfaction is obtained by striving for and attaining a level of excellence

Need for power

Tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others, and to be seen as a powerful individual


Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior

Functions of emotions

Preparing us for action
Shaping our future behavior
Helping us interact more effectively with others

Basic emotions


James-Lange theory

The belief that emotional experience is a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation

Cannon-Bard theory

The belief that both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus

Schacter-Singer theory

The belief that emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation based on environmental cues

Facial affect program

Assumed to be universally present at birth
Displays an appropriate expression

Facial feedback hypothesis

Not only reflects emotional experience, but also helps determine how people experience and label emotions


Motivation tension, or arousal, that energized behavior to fulfill a need


Thematic Apperception Test
Measures achievement motivation

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