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23 terms

Psych 2 Chapter 8

STUDY
PLAY
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- Suggests that before more sophisticated, higher-order needs can be met, certain primary needs must be satisfied
Self-actualization
Esteem
Love and belongingness
Safety needs
Physiological needs
Primary drive
Basic drives related to biological needs of the body or the species as a whole
Secondary drive
Needs are brought about by prior experience and learning
Drive-reduction approach
Suggest that a lack of some basic biological requirement such as water produces a drive to obtain that requirement
Motivation
The factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms
Instincts
Inborn patters of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned
Homeostasis
A basic motivational phenomena that underlies primary drives and involves the body's tendency to maintain a steady internal state
Arousal approach
Seek to explain behavior in which the goal is to maintain or increase excitement
Incentive approach
Suggest that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals, or incentives
Cognitive approach
Suggest that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, expectations, and goals
- Intrinsic motivation
- Extrinsic motivation
Need for affiliation
An interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people
Need for achievement
A stable, learned characteristic in which satisfaction is obtained by striving for and attaining a level of excellence
Need for power
Tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others, and to be seen as a powerful individual
Emotions
Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior
Functions of emotions
Preparing us for action
Shaping our future behavior
Helping us interact more effectively with others
Basic emotions
Happiness
Sadness
Anger
Fear
Disgust
Surprised
James-Lange theory
The belief that emotional experience is a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation
Cannon-Bard theory
The belief that both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus
Schacter-Singer theory
The belief that emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation based on environmental cues
Facial affect program
Assumed to be universally present at birth
Displays an appropriate expression
Facial feedback hypothesis
Not only reflects emotional experience, but also helps determine how people experience and label emotions
Drive
Motivation tension, or arousal, that energized behavior to fulfill a need
TAT
Thematic Apperception Test
Measures achievement motivation