Social Psych Midterm continued
Terms in this set (100)
Assume that instead of conducting experiments, Latané and Darley had used a correlational method to study the relationship between the number of bystanders who witness an emergency and how quickly a victim receives help. Assume that the correlational data were compatible with results from experiments: the more bystanders, the more time it took bystanders to help. What type of correlation is this between time and number of bystanders?
a positive correlation
Dr. Nash wants to conduct research on spousal abuse. Why would Dr. Nash be unwise to use observational methods for this topic?
Because abuse is usually something that occurs privately.
Suppose a researcher wants to know whether frustration really does cause aggression. She collects a large number of experimental studies that involve both children and adults, and that are conducted both in the laboratory and in the "real world" in both the United States and other cultures. She then conducts a(n) ________ to determine whether there is enough consistency in findings across studies to determine the generalizability of the relationship between frustration and aggression.
The authors of your text state that the basic dilemma of the social psychologist is the trade-off between internal and external validity. What is the best way to resolve this dilemma?
Replicate results using both laboratory and field studies to maximize both types of validity.
When an experiment has shown that an independent variable is a cause of a phenomenon, what is the most reasonable conclusion one should draw?
There is some evidence for an association, but one should be cautious about drawing causal conclusions.
Which of the following is one of the ethical principles that psychologists must follow when using human participants? All participants must be
informed that they can withdraw from the study at any time.
Which of the following is the best example of the observational method?
Elaine parks her car near a traffic light and records how many drivers run red lights.
Which of the following threatens the internal validity of an experiment?
failing to assign participants randomly to conditions
Why is it unwise to conclude that if two variables are correlated, one must have caused the other?
Some unmeasured third variable might make them appear related when in fact they are not.
Why is random assignment important in an experiment?
It allows researchers to rule out individual differences as an alternative explanation.
You are reading a paper about how to do well in college and it presents several correlation coefficients. These correlation coefficients indicate
how well you can predict one variable from the other.
A psychologist first conducted a study on helping behavior with a sample of college undergraduates. This psychologist then replicated the study using the same procedure with a different participant sample. If similar results were obtained with both samples, this experimenter has demonstrated
After a controversial play, referees meet in the middle of the field to discuss what each saw and explain his/her ruling before coming to a final decision. This most closely resembles which of the following?
Are people who are better educated more or less prejudiced than people who have less education? This question is most appropriately answered by using
Based on Nisbett and Wilson's (1977) work (as presented by the authors of your text) on telling more than you can know, if a survey respondent is asked about a hypothetical situation, he or she is probably going to respond
in line with their theories and beliefs about what should have influenced them.
Dr. Lim conducts a study in which he places either an expensive or a cheap purse on a park bench. He then counts how many people try to return the purse to its owner. What kind of study is this?
Dr. Wegner conducts a study to investigate the careers young adults are interested in pursuing using a sample of 100 Harvard honors students. What is the major problem with her sample?
It is difficult to say with certainty that she can generalize across people.
Dr. Winstell is interested in studying prejudice, and devises a study in which Caucasian participants are led to believe that they are chatting electronically with an African-American participant. In reality, the participants are responding to another Caucasian participant, and she discloses this information to all participants at the end of the study. Dr. Winstell has used ________ in her study.
If a researcher were to observe women exercising and then men exercising and compare these groups, why would this not be considered an experiment?
The experimenter is not manipulating anything.
In a study of group dynamics, participants were placed in groups consisting of either three or ten people. During the study, group members worked together trying to solve a puzzle. After completing the task, participants reported how satisfied they were with the other members of their group. ________ is the independent variable in this study.
All of the following are examples of fundamental attribution error except
your boyfriend brings you flowers and you are immediately suspicious about what he must have done that you will be angry about.
Although certain facial expressions are easily encoded and decoded across members of the human species, display rules
signal that culture is important, too.
If your friend were to do something that is not typical and not what she would regularly do, this lack of consistency would prompt you to make what kind of attribution?
Lars has been blind since birth. Which negative emotion is he unlikely to be able to express on his face?
Professor DeVeaux reads an essay in which a student argues in favor of full nuclear war to resolve the conflict in the Middle East. Initially she thinks, "Whoa, what an extremist!" Then she recalls that the student had been assigned to advocate nuclear war as part of the assignment. Why would Professor DeVeaux still be likely to view the student as a political extremist?
Although she adjusted her beliefs, she did not adjust them enough to fully account for the power of the situation.
Seeing pictures of physically attractive celebrities and models, many people in the U.S. assume that these people are also intelligent, kind, or wealthy. Such assumptions illustrate the implicit personality theory held widely as a culture that
what is beautiful is good.
Suppose a certain student, Nathan, falls asleep during every chemistry class. Suppose further that Nathan is the only one who falls asleep in this class, and that he falls asleep in all of his other classes. According to Kelley's covariation model of attribution, how will people explain Nathan's behavior (falling asleep)?
It is due to something unusual about Nathan, because his behavior is low in consensus, low in distinctiveness, and high in consistency
We make self-serving attributions for all of the following reasons except that we
are concerned with obtaining accurate feedback about ourselves to use in making future decisions.
Why is belief in a just world a self-serving belief? We can
convince ourselves that we are safe from misfortunes
"Blaming the victim" of rape, abuse, or other misfortunes is most closely related to
belief in a just world.
According to recent research, why does culture influence our tendency to make internal versus external attributions?
Cultures vary in the extent to which interdependence and conformity are valued.
According to the authors of your text, people use social perception in order to figure people out as part of social survival, and also because it
is enjoyable, and a form of entertainment.
All but which of the following can interfere with people's ability to decode others' facial expressions?
nonverbal behavior is often multichannel
Chapter 1 of the textbook introduced the idea that people often behave and think in ways to protect their self-esteem. Which of the following will help do that?
Ed and Violet just saw their professor slip and fall. Ed thinks, "What a klutz!", but Violet thinks, "I bet there was water on the floor and she slipped on it." In this case, Ed made an ________ attribution and Violet made an ________ attribution.
Judy forms a circle with her thumb and forefinger to communicate to her sister that everything is okay. Although in America this is a common gesture, it may be interpreted differently elsewhere in the world. What kind of gesture is this?
Sarah, a student at an American university, has just arrived in Bolivia for a study year abroad. When meeting her host parents, she notices that they stand very close to her as they speak. She feels uncomfortable until she realizes that
they have different cultural norms concerning the use of space.
Why is it that people do not necessarily make attributions as Kelley's covariation model predicts?
People do not always have the relevant information they need.
Based on research on attributions within married couples presented in your text, consider the following couple: Dean claims that every time Erica does something kind it is just because she wants to impress his mother, and every time she does something rude he says it is because she is a mean person. What kind of relationship are they most likely to have?
very dissatisfied: a troubled couple
Sometimes so-called "self-serving attributions" in the face of a setback only look self-serving to others. This is because actors
possess more information about past successes.
According to self-awareness theory, under which of the following circumstances would an individual be most highly motivated to avoid self-awareness?
directly after receiving a low grade on an important test
Based on information presented in the textbook, what childhood activities foster development of relational interdependence for females?
playing with dolls with a friend
Based on the idea of overjustification, if you have a group of children who already enjoy reading which of the following would be most likely to decrease their intrinsic motivation?
rewarding them for each book they read
Brittany knows she will need all the mental resources she has to focus on a speech she must give. Which of the following would be least helpful in terms of increasing her self-regulatory resources?
also trying to quit smoking that day
Earl wants to understand his self-concept better, so he sits quietly by himself and thinks about who he is and what his values and attitudes are. What is Earl engaging in?
Imagine that you are a participant in the experiment conducted by Schachter and Singer (1962). You were injected with a vitamin compound called Suproxin and told that you might experience an increased heart rate, hand tremors, and sweaty palms. Further imagine that while completing a questionnaire, the person in the room with you begins to act angry, tears up the questionnaire, and storms from the room. You are likely to ________ because ________.
ignore this situational cue; you know the source of your arousal
It's Halloween, but you don't want to be running back and forth to answer the door. To avoid any "tricks," you decide to leave a large container of candy on the porch. You've just read about self-awareness theory, and you have a hunch about how to keep greedy trick-or-treaters from taking more than their fair share of the candy. You decide to
place a large mirror behind the candy, so that children can see themselves as they approach.
Stella is very serious about dancing and starts college as a dance major. The more serious she gets about dancing, the more she worries about the pressure to succeed and the rewards associated with succeeding. She finds that dancing feels like a chore and something she has to do rather than wants to do. Her change in her views about dance is due to what social psychologists call
When Daphne goes on an interview, she does her best to present herself well and put her best foot forward. Which function of the self is exemplified in this situation?
When Jessie sits down for the first day of class, the person next to him, Blake, is wearing a "Free Tibet" shirt. After a few minutes of talking, Jessie realizes that he likes Blake. Which of the following is most likely to happen based on the idea of social tuning?
Jessie may unconsciously alter his attitude to agree that Tibet should be freed.
Which of the following people is engaging in upward social comparison?
Toni, who reads William Faulkner to assess her own writing skills
While riding a harrowing roller coaster, Jim notices that the person sitting next to him is extremely attractive and he resolves to get her phone number when the ride is over. Jim is probably doing this because he is
misattributing his arousal from the roller coaster ride to sexual attraction.
Who most likely believes a causal theory?
Isabella, who thinks that rainy days make her sad
Why would cognitive attributional processes be involved in helping us label emotions?
In many situations, there is more than one plausible cause for arousal.
Tim has asked Robin to marry him. Robin isn't sure whether she loves him enough or whether she loves him in the right way. She talks with her sister about all the reasons why it would be wise to marry Tim, and all the reasons why it wouldn't be such a great idea. According to Wilson's theory of reasons-generated attitude change, Robin might regret it were she to base her decision on the reasons she mentioned. Why is that?
Reasons Robin generates during the conversation won't predict her long-term attitudes and feelings very well.
If you just declined an invitation to go out with friends so that you can study and then another friend offers you a beer, according to research in this chapter, what can you do to exert some self-control and stick with your study plan?
Take a break and collect yourself. You can resist the temptation.
Molly is eighteen years old, and has an eight-year-old brother, Joe. If they are both asked to answer the question, "Who am I?" Molly is likely to answer the question in ________ terms than Joe.
Researchers asked participants to keep journals of their daily moods and of other variables, such as the weather and how much sleep they got the night before. When asked, many participants reported the amount of sleep the night before was correlated with their moods. When information recorded in the journals was subjected to more systematic statistical analysis, it was found that amount of sleep was not related to participants' self-reported moods. This is most likely because participants
relied on causal theories about the relation between mood and sleep.
Researchers briefly anesthetized chimpanzees and painted an odorless red dye on their heads. When they awoke and looked in the mirror, the chimps immediately reached to touch their brows and ears where the dye was. These findings suggest that chimps
develop a sense of self-recognition comparable to that of two-year-old humans.
Whereas Americans have a proverb, "The squeaky wheel gets the grease," Japanese have a proverb that states "The nail that stands out gets pounded down." These two different proverbs mirror social-psychological research that has demonstrated that people in Asian cultures
have a more interdependent concept of self than do Americans.
A person who supports gay marriage listens to a televised debate between two politicians on either side of the issue. According to dissonance theory, this person is likely to remember
the most plausible arguments in favor of gay marriage and the most implausible arguments against it.
A tobacco grower says, "I'm not the only one growing it. If I stop, someone else will be there." Assuming that the man was experiencing dissonance from the fact that he was making his living from a crop that is bad for people's health, he appears to be reducing this dissonance by
adding new cognitions.
After filing your ballot for an election, you are more convinced than you were before filing the ballot that you voted for the best candidate. This example illustrates the idea that when decisions are _______, individuals engage in a greater amount of dissonance reduction.
Derek likes to bully his little brother Matt. Their mother begins to give Derek the mild punishment of a stern look every time Derek hits Matt. This is sufficient to stop Derek's bullying, and in time, Derek stops bullying Matt even when his mother is not around. According to theories of insufficient punishment, why might this happen?
Because there was insufficient external justification for resisting, Derek began to devalue the forbidden activity.
Hai has been taking expensive beta-carotene supplements for years because he believes they will reduce his risk of cancer. Hai has just learned that a well-controlled study published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine showed that beta-carotene supplements do not reduce cancer risk. Hai is probably experiencing
Maria is on a limited budget, and can only afford one compact disk (CD). She really likes two in particular: Frank Sinatra's Greatest Hits and the soundtrack from the musical Wicked. When she gets home and listens to the Frank Sinatra CD, she cannot imagine why she ever considered the Wicked CD. This is because
Maria was motivated to reduce her postdecision dissonance.
Of the four people presented below, which one would feel the least regret about altering her appearance, based on information in your text about cognitive dissonance?
Cheryl, who just got a tattoo
Phil spent an hour and a half running cables and toying with connections in order to receive cable TV in his room. When he was finished, he got fifty channels, but all of them were kind of fuzzy. His roommate, Jason, arrived home when Phil was done, and they both sat down to watch TV. Which one will enjoy the cable TV the most?
Phil, because of justification of effort
Talia loves animals but still eats meat. When she experiences dissonance about the contradiction, she tells herself that she also volunteers her time at an animal shelter. This manner of reducing dissonance involves
Two weeks after making a public statement at odds with his previous positions, which politician is most likely to report to his close friends that he sticks by his most recent (contradictory) statement?
a candidate who couldn't quite figure out why he contradicted himself
When people act contrary to their self-perceptions as reasonable and sensible people, they experience a feeling known as ________.
Your text describes several situations in which a person may decide to behave immorally, a behavior which is likely to arouse a fair amount of cognitive dissonance. How are people most likely to reduce this dissonance stemming from an immoral act such as lying or cheating?
change their attitude about the immoral behavior
Based on the Ben Franklin effect, you are most likely to increase your liking for Tony when
you lend Tony $10.
Imagine that both Vera and Carol are against affirmative action. Vera is offered $50 to write an essay about the benefits of affirmative action, whereas Carol is offered only $1 to write a similar essay. After writing the essays and receiving their payments, both women are asked to report their attitudes toward affirmative action. Assuming that their attitudes were similarly negative at the outset, which of the following results would you expect?
Carol would be more favorable than Vera toward affirmative action.
According to results of dissonance studies, who is more likely to believe that lying is truly a heinous, unconscionable, and unforgivable act?
Mark, who was tempted to lie, but told the truth instead
According to the authors of your text, one of the most powerful determinants of human behavior stems from our need to
preserve and maintain a relatively favorable view of ourselves.
According to the authors of your text, why would people experience cognitive dissonance after investing a lot of time and effort in pursuit of a goal that falls short of their expectations?
Sensible people don't work hard to attain something trivial.
Janis has just volunteered to undergo treatment for drug addiction. After she leaves the clinic, she is ________ to stay off drugs because her recovery at the clinic was ________.
likely; a very difficult ordeal
Participants in an experiment conducted by Davis and Jones (1960) were instructed to provide hurtful feedback to another person (actually a confederate, of course). After providing such mean assessments of his performance, participants then evaluated him privately. After providing this criticism, these participants' evaluations of the confederate were more ________ because the ________.
negative; participants convinced themselves that the victim deserved it
Rudy thinks that if he ever got kicked off the football team he would be depressed for months, and that his life would lose all meaning. In actuality, his response would probably not be this severe or prolonged. What is Rudy demonstrating?
the impact bias
According to reactance theory, which of the following persuasion attempts will meet with the least resistance when a parent tries to convince his child to keep her room clean?
"Please try to remember to put your toys away when you've finished playing with them."
André is not at all familiar with a presidential candidate's stand on the issues or with his proposed policies, but André likes "his" candidate and plans to vote for him anyway. This example illustrates that people's attitudes toward politicians are often
As a persuasive communicator, your goal is to influence the opinions of your audience. You are most likely to benefit from an audience that is slightly distracted when
your arguments are rather weak.
At the new-car dealership, Josh asks the salesperson a number of questions: "How good is the gas mileage on this model? What does Consumer Reports say about this make and model? Does this car hold its resale value?" The ________ component of Josh's attitude toward the car is most likely to inform his questions.
Based on research by Fazio regarding the ability of highly accessible attitudes to predict behaviors, which of the following people would be most likely to stop and donate to a homeless person who approaches and asks for money?
Christina, who was just thinking about her sister's eviction
Before Jane schedules an appointment to undergo plastic surgery, she asks herself, "But what will my husband Ted think about me getting a face lift?" This example reflects the power of _______ to influence intentions and behaviors
Eva's friends and her husband think that it's important that she get a mammogram at her next annual checkup. Eva believes that it will be relatively easy for her to make time in her schedule for that extra procedure. Thus, Eva has every intention of getting a mammogram as part of her annual checkup. This example best reflects the power of ________ and ________, respectively, to influence behavioral intentions and subsequent behaviors.
subjective norms ; perceived behavioral control
Imagine that you are trying to promote a new type of low-fat snack food to a group of people in the grocery store. You know that these people are high in the need for cognition. What type of persuasive communication would you deliver?
a message with several high-quality arguments
Politicians often preface their remarks with such statements such as "I know that my opponent will try to tell you that I'm weak on crime." This strategy is an example of
Public service ads often try to raise fear in an audience to induce people to change unhealthy behaviors. If fear appeals are used, it is crucial to provide the audience with _______ to increase the likelihood of behavior change.
specific recommendations for how to reduce the unhealthy behaviors
Reza and Eyad are both salesmen. Eyad is more persuasive than Reza. According to research the Yale Attitude Change approach he's probably ________ than Reza.
Which of the following best illustrates an implicit attitude?
when Randi experiences a flash of discomfort around her lesbian friends
Which of the following is the best example of a behaviorally based attitude?
Millicent finds herself sketching in her spare time and realizes she must love to draw.
Reggie is busy trying to prepare a complicated recipe for dinner when his sons come in asking him who can use the computer first. One son, Jason, gives a long explanation about why he needs it, and goes on for some time. The other son, Cameron, just gives a short explanation. If Reggie is processing these arguments via the heuristic route, who is he most likely to give computer privileges to first?
Sometimes even when people want to pay attention to a message, they cannot. Which of the following is not something that would prohibit someone from paying attention to a message?
having a high need for cognition
Tesser (1993) and other researchers suggest that some attitudes are linked to genetic influences. According to these researchers, how is it possible that we might inherit from our parents a love of something like classical music?
Genes influence temperament and personality, which are in turn related to attitudes.
Who is more likely to use the central route to persuasion when attending to a communication about health insurance reform?
James, who is undergoing extensive treatment after his auto accident
Why are affectively based attitudes so resistant to logical persuasive attempts to change them? Affectively based attitudes are
often linked to values, which are difficult to change
You work for an advertising agency. You have been assigned to come up with an advertising campaign for a new brand of designer water, which in reality is standard city reservoir water in a fancy bottle. In this case, you are best off using the ________ route, because ________.
peripheral; you do not have strong arguments for why your product is superior
Your friend wears bell-bottoms constantly, a behavior that offends your sense of style. If you wanted to apply cognitive dissonance theory to get your friend to change her attitude toward bell-bottoms, you should encourage her to give a public speech ________ under conditions of ________ external justification.
against bell-bottoms; low
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