Early chapter 4

Exploration motivation
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 38
Terms in this set (38)
the desire to influence the environment in a specific way and to get better at it. When motivated by competency, the individual practice the action over and over again and seek feedback from the environment, including other people, about the effects of the action. Competency is a second level of motivation; it helps sustain actions that were initially motivated only by exploration
Is the desire to attain, compete with, or surpass a standard of excellence. The standard may be an external one or maybe generated by the individual achievement is the third and the highest level of motivation for occupation. When competent at the action, the person continues to perform it to achieve success according to a standard.
Are those that involve two or more people in our by nature highly interactive and transactional. They are categorized by a back-and-forth involvement in which the actions of each participant shape the actions of another. Provide opportunities for learning and change through the dynamic exchanges among the persons involved.
The older adult may require assistance with house work, meal preparation, mobility, personal care, etc. Thus often but not always, the older adult depends upon others to perform some part of occupations that were once done alone if the person becomes more dependent due to health and reduced capabilities the person may need other persons to perform some occupations on his or her behalf Is an example of
Attention deficit disordercharacterized by a short attention span and impulsive behavior that is inappropriate for the child's developmental ageAutism Spectrum Disordera disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviorsattention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivityIntellectual disorder ADD, ADHD, and ASD can be seen as a mental health issues detected inInfancy and in early childhoodReactive Attachment Disorderin children, a pattern of inhibited, withdrawn behavior toward adult caregivers. May lead to failure to thriveGoals of treatment like developing trust in social interactions, increasing gross and fine motor coordination, improving sensory processing and perceptual skills, and facilitating spontaneous play.Building a trusting relationship and modifying the environment to enable success are often the twin foundations of intervention with childrenFortunately, mental health problems in middle childhood are in frequent, although more common than an early childhood. Only one and 20 parents believe their child age 4 to 17 years to have severe emotional or behavioral disorders. Some of the problems that are first identified in children during these years areDisruptive impulse control, and conduct disorders in which the child behaves in an antisocial fashion example stealing, skipping school. Other disorders may show up in a physical behaviors examples eating problems, stuttering, bedwetting and so on. Oppositional behavior is in tantrums made merit a diagnosis of ODDDepression May first appear in the , drug and alcohol problems may also begin at this ageMiddle school yearsSymptoms of anxiety disorders in obsessive compulsive disorders may appear in middle childhood. The child with OCD may be fearful and anxious and may use ritual behavior such as ordering, checking, or touching things to cope with these feelings.The ritual behaviors interfere with success in school and may prevent a child for making friends. This disorder is generally treated with medication.Occupational therapy treatment models very with the setting and his philosophy but may involve sensor integrative, behavioral, psychoanalytical, and environmental approaches. Children with ADD or learning disabilities maybe top progressive relaxation and stress management techniques. Programs focusing on social and emotional learning, activity based social skills, bullying prevention, performing arts and life skills may also be included.For school as children, the major occupational role is that a student. Within a school setting, student skills such as keyboarding and cursive handwriting may be reinforced with occupational therapy, using special techniques and adaptive equipment and seating as needed. Occupational therapy practitioner may work with parents around homework and school related tasks in the home environment. As for the treatment of small children, occupational therapy intervention in middle school children is considered a complex specialization, and one in which the OTA will benefit from additional training supervisionMajor psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorders and depression often make their first appearance inAdolescenceWhat is schizophrenia occurs as early as a lesson it interferes with furtherPsychosocial development. In other words, the developmental task of forming a separate identity is extraordinary difficult for someone with schizophrenia, and later development suffers as a consequenceSubstance related an addictive disorders or mental health problems that are characterized byFrequent use or excessive use of drugs, alcohol, inhalants, other mind altering substances.Adolescence may fall into substance abuse after experimenting with drugs or alcohol to be excepted by their peers. Some adolescents who have other mental health problems use their substances or self medication to dead in their feelings of anxiety or depressionBecause forging a Personal identity is the major task of the adolescent, gender identity may be a source of confusion. Experimentation with very sexual rolls can be an expression of personal preference but may also be a way of acting out against one parentsIn addition to the Occupational profile the therapist may you specialize evaluation instrument such as theAdolescent role assessment to learn how the adolescent is adjusting to school, family life, and friendship.Go to treatment for adolescence may include development ofSelf-esteem and self identity skills, development of occupational choice, training in daily living skills, development of sensory motor skills especially in relation to body image, and acquisition of school and prevocational and leisure behaviors.Many of the clients seen in mental health settings are in this age rangeYoung adulthood is a period during which many of the major psychiatric disorders of adult life are first noted. It is a period in which alcohol or substance abuse may appear. For those who are insecure and their jobs or in a personal and sexual or family lives, this can be a period of severe stress and difficult adjustment. Varying levels of appointment/unemployment and uncertain job security can impede occupational successThe process of choosing a partner is compounded by fears of affection by sexually transmitted diseases. The rise of infertility problems, such as consequences of prior I see the infection in this age group means that many couples cannot have their own biological children. Person who have hepatitis C or HIV Mayfair discrimination on the job and society all of these factors are potentially stressful and may lead to mental health problems.Among the mental health problems and psychiatric disorders often seen in young adults are adjustment reactions, alcohol and drug abuse, schizophrenia, mood disorders, eating disorders, anxiety disorders, and various personality disordersAdjustment reactions or disordersOr maladaptive or ineffective reactions to life stress; instead of dealing with the stress in a positive way example by trying to solve problems and rise about the situation, the individual may feel overwhelmed by depression or anxiety, causing him or her to function poorly at work or in social situations,Occupational therapy for people who have adjustment disorders focus on helping themIdentify and work towards Pacific goals, generally occupational goals. Intervention should be client centered and activity center. A crisis intervention approach maybe used.The goals of occupational therapy for alcohol and drug problems Usually includeDevelopment of self awareness and self responsibility, identification of personal goals, vocational assessment and work adjustment, and development of time management and leisure planning skills. in particular learning new activities and routines for their space-time.SPMIserious and persistent mental illnessOccupational therapy goes for young adults focus on the development of adult life skills in the film in a personal aspirations. Typical goals includeCompleting ones education, identify location interest and attitudes, acquiring prevocational and vocational skills, obtaining imitating employment, developing daily living skills, improving social skills, developing coping skills, identifying in developing leisure interest, and structuring leisure time.Additional developmental stretches center around the process of aging. During this period, the adult undergoes a decline in physical capacities, a discontinuation of sexual energies, and cosmetic deterioration. Women go through menopause, and men sexual potency declines. All of these changes signify the one is no longer young. Different people react differently to this. Some sea cosmetic surgery, subject themselves to Entex exercise programs, look for younger sexual partners, and attempt to stay the forces of time. Others except the changes gracefully as a condition of life and move on to other concerns.Typically, the children of adults in this age group are teenagers or young adults. Dealing with the rebellion in turmoil of adolescent children can be a challenging joy or significant stress, depending upon adults coping skills. Eventually, these children mature, leave home, and create lives and families of their own; some adults find this prospect alarming because it means the end of their own rules as parents. Mid life adults also are frequently faced with the needs of their own aging parents, who may be dependent in someway on their care And who is the duration is a reminder of the inescapability of death. Does copper tween the demands of the aging parents and demands of their own children have been named the sandwich generation.Successful negotiation of the mid life stage and tails understanding and excepting the aging processAnd identifying and pursuing goals in work or family or community life that enable want to contribute to the future in a way that feels significant to the individualMidlife adults who have mental disorders categorized into three groupsFirst group consist of those who had mental health problems for many years problems that have continued and often worsen as they age. The second group comprises a persons with various adjustment disorders, those who have difficulty managing the crisis and stresses of adult life and who resort to maladaptive behavior such as drug and alcohol abuse, overheating, or withdrawal. Their group consists of individuals who are developing neurocognitive disorder such as Alzheimer's disease although these conditions were typically appear in late adulthood. Each of these groups has different need in terms of occupational therapy mental health services.Depression is the most common psychiatric diagnosis is in the elderly Population. A person in a very deep or severe depression can become so withdrawn and self-involved has to appear demented; for this reason, the condition is sometimes misdiagnosed as an organic mental disorder. In some cases, the depression is maxed by multiple physical complaints aches and pain stomach problems and so on that may cause physicians to completely missed the underlying depression.When the depression is finally recognized and properly treated usually with medication the person attention and cognitive functions return to normal. After depression, Alzheimer's disease and other neurocognitive disorders are the psychiatric conditions most commonly diagnosed in the aged populationOccupational therapy may be provided to the older adult in the home, and a geriatric day center or in a hospital or nursing home. The purpose of occupational therapy is to help the older adult maintain or achieve a feeling of competence or self-reliance it to prevent further deterioration and functioning. Environmental adaptions made by the occupational therapy practitioner can allow higher functioning individuals to continue living in their home; this is very important for maintaining their sense of self identity and a personal daily routine. In addition, the therapist or assistant may provide leisure counseling, assist in the development of hobbies, and facilitate social involvement.Occupational therapy interventions for the older adult in a nursing home or general psychiatric unit or similar to those described earlier for the mid life adult with Alzheimer's disease. The OTA may use guidelines for environmental and social support based on the Allen model or instruct nursing staff and volunteers to do so. Other aspects of occupational therapy intervention for this group are describing chapter 6. Because not all residents with psychiatric diagnosis in his nursing home function at such a low level, the OT must plan programs allow people with different capacities to participate in their provide challenges to each at his or her own level. The therapist begins by assessing how well each person functions in terms of social, physical and cognitive functioning self-care skills. Intervention approaches and supports are often based on the Allen approach to cognitive disabilities. Activity groups may provide many different craft leisure and social activities that can be customized for individual members