400 Must Have Words - 01 Nature
400 Must Have Words for the TOEFL
Terms in this set (40)
v. To leave; to give up
To save their lives, the sailors had to abandon the sinking ship.
adv. In a harmful way; negatively
Excessive rainfall early in the spring can adversely affect the planting of crops.
adversity n, adverse adj
adj. Gathered into or amounting to a whole
It is impossible to judge last year's performance without knowing the aggregate sales numbers.
aggregate v, aggregate n
n. Preparing the land to grow crops; improvement for agricultural purposes
With the development of land cultivation, hunters and gatherers
were able to settle in one place.
v. To supply with nourishment for plants by adding helpful
substances to the soil
This farm fertilizes tomatoes more than any other crop.
fertilizer n, fertilization n
v. To increase in power; to act with increased strength
Jacob's long absence intensified his certainty that he should marry Rose.
intensification n, intense adj
n. The supplying of water to dry land
In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farmland for irrigation.
v. To gain possession of; to get
After a series of difficult interviews, he finally was able to obtain
n. The process by which green plants make their own food by combining water, salts, and carbon dioxide in the presence of light.
Oxygen is a by-product of the process of photosynthesis.
n. Water that falls to the Earth's surface
In the Pacific Northwest, the high level of precipitation ensures rich, green plant life.
v. To expect; to sense something before it happens
By placing sensors in earthquake-prone areas, scientists can anticipate some tremors in time to warn the public.
anticipation n, anticipatory adj
adj. Extremely harmful; causing financial or physical ruin
The architect died in a catastrophic elevator accident.
catastrophe n, catastrophically adv
v. To come together with great or violent force
As usual, their holiday was ruined when their in-laws' views on politics collided with their own.
n. A sudden, often violent, outburst
The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 caused 57 deaths and
immeasurable change to the face of the mountain.
n. Severe hunger; a drastic food shortage
The potato famine in Ireland in the mid-nineteenth century caused large numbers of Irish people to emigrate to America.
n. An overflowing of water; an excessive amount
The constant rain and poor drainage system caused a flood in town.
The political party sent out a flood of letters criticizing their
n. A strong influence
The speech about the importance of education made an impact
v. To keep going, despite obstacles or discouragement; to
maintain a purpose
The hikers persevered despite the bad weather and the icy trail.
persist v, persistent adj
v. To go down suddenly; to decrease by a great amount in a
He jumped off the diving board and plunged into the pool.
The value of the company's stock plunged after its chief executive was arrested.
v. To release a thing or an emotion
When they saw the strange man on their property, they unleashed their dogs.
v. To adjust to the circumstances; to make suitable
Dinosaurs could not adapt to the warmer temperatures.
The teacher adapted the exercises for his more advanced students.
Adapt is often followed by to.
adaptation n, adapter n, adaptable adj
n. Various; showing a lot of differences within a group
India is one of the most linguistically diverse countries in the world.
An -ly adverb (e.g., linguistically) often comes before
diversify v, diversity n, diversification n
v. To develop; to come forth
Modern-day sharks evolved from their ancestor Eryops, which lived more than 200 million years ago.
Evolve is often followed by into or from.
evolution n, evolutionist n
n. Part, characteristic
The best feature of this car is its heated seats.
Feature is often followed by of.
n. A group of people born at about the same time
As older managers retired, a new generation of leaders took control of the company.
Before generation, an adjective like new, next, earlier, or
older is common. Generation is often followed by of.
adj. Naturally characteristic; always found within something,
because it's a basic part of that thing
No job can be interesting all the time. Boredom is inherent in any kind of work.
Inherent is often followed by in.
n. Movement from one place to another by a group of people
The migration of farm workers from one state to the next depends primarily on the harvest.
Migration is often followed by to or from.
migrate v, migrant n, migratory adj
adj. Related to the body; related to materials that can be seen
Because of the shape of its throat, an ape does not have the physical ability to speak
Physical usually comes before the noun it describes.
n. A series of steps leading to a result
To get a good job, most people go through a long process of letter-writing and interviews.
Process is often followed by of plus the -ing form of a
proceed v, process v
v. To continue living (despite some danger or illness)
After getting lost in the mountains, Gordon survived by eating wild plants and catching fish.
Survive is often followed by a phrase with by.
survivor n, survival n
n. Something that restricts thought or action
The constraints of military life kept Eileen from seeing Private Morris more than once a month.
n. Being made less clean by a germ or hazardous substance
The contamination in the river came from the factory located just upstream.
contaminate v, contaminant n
v. To greatly decrease the supply of a resource or material
The prolonged war depleted the country's national treasury.
v. To throw away; to get rid of; to kill
She disposed of her unwanted possessions before moving.
Dispose of should be learned as a unit. In this meaning,
dispose does not occur without of.
disposal n, disposable adj
adv. In terms of elements; basically
Elementally, coal and diamonds are the same.
element n, elemental adj
n. Sending out from a small space into the general environment;
a substance discharged into the air
The Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission of
pollutants into the air.
Emission is usually followed by an of phrase.
n. Complete disappearance; the end of existence
Human beings have caused the extinction of many other species.
Extinction implies an absolute end; an extinct thing
cannot be brought back into existence.
n. A place where a liquid is collected and stored
Cult members threatened to poison the town's water reservoir.
v. To become reduced in size, amount, or value
If you dry your clothing on the "high heat" setting, they may shrink.
shrinkage n, shrinkable adj
adj. Firm and dependable; showing little change
He fell because the ladder wasn't stable.
stability n, stably adv