HNFE: Food and Nutrition Exam 1

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overweight25 - 29.9obese30 - 39.9severely obese40 and aboveenergy dense foodsex. cinnamon rolls, chips, hamburgers, fries, bread, etc.nutrient dense foodsex. fruits, vegetables, whole grains, milk, juice, mostly unprocessed foodsphysical activity (PA) guidelines for children & adolescents60+ minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity daily - aerobic: at least 3 days/week - muscle-strengthening: at least 3 days/week - bone-strengthening: at least 3 days/week (all in combination)physical activity (PA) guidelines for adults- should do at least 150 minutes to 300 minutes a week of moderate-intensity or 75 to 150 minutes a week of vigorous intensity aerobic activity - should do muscle strengthening activities 2 or more days/weekAnthropometricheight, weight, % body fat, body cirumferencebiochemicalconcentration of nutrients/nutrient byproducts in blood, urine, & fecesclinical assessmentphysical evidence (ex. high blood pressure), skin, eyes, & tongue; hair loss, sense of touch, ability to walkdietary assessmentdietary intake record (DIR) or 24 hr recallenvironmental assessment(background analysis) medical history, social history, family health history, education level, economic statusRDA- recommended daily allowanceRDA definitiondaily amount of a nutrient that will meet the needs of 97% (1 SD) in a particular age & gender groupAIadequate intakeAI definition- when there isn't enough information to make an RDA - standard is based on the amount that appears to be maintaining health in healthy peopleEERestimated energy requirementsEER definition- for calorie needs, the RDA is set higher for most people - the EER is for the average person and should be tailored based on more informationULtolerable upper limitUL definitionhighest amount of a nutrient unlikely to cause adverse health effectsCDRRchronic disease risk reduction intakesCDRR definition- values set after correlations with intakes and disease - ex. sodium: the CDRR is set at 2300mg max a day to reduce the risk of hypertensionplasma membrane- lipid bilayer containing phospholipids and cholesterol - proteins used to signal and transport as well as enzymes are located in the pmlipid bilayer- polar, hydrophilic head - nonpolar, hydrophobic fatty acid tailssmooth ER- where the synthesis of phospholipids, cholesterol, steroids, TAGs & glycogen - stores Ca^++rough ER- proteins made at fixed ribosomes on the RER are released into the cisternae of the ERgolgi appartus- modifies and packages proteins for secretion - produces lysosomeslysosomes- produced by golgi apparatus - fuses with damaged organelles to break them down (breaks down unused proteins) - fuses with endosomes to destroy bacteria or other debris that enters the cellautolysisinternal digestion of the cellperoxisomes- break down very long chain FAs - detoxify harmful chemicals - produce H2O2mitochondria- respiratory center of the cell (contains the TCA cycle & electron transport chain) - part of a networknucleus- most cells contain 1 - skeletal muscle has many - RBCs have none - contains nuclear pores for chemical communication - contains nuclear pores for chemical communication - stores DNADNA- condensed into chromosomes - our genetic blueprint which is read by the enzyme RNA polymerase, and produces mRNAtissues- cells that work together to accomplish a specific task arrange themselves to form thisepithelial tissuescovers all out surfaces including inside from mouth to anusconnective tissueslies underneath epithelial tissue, supports & protects our bodymuscle tissuessmooth, skeletal, heartnervous tissuenerves and supporting cellsorgans- tissues of all one type of different types come together to form a functional unit in the bodyorgan systemorgans that work together for a particular functionintegumentary system organsskin, hair, sweat glands, and nailsintegumentary system functions- protects against environmental hazards - helps regulate body temperature - provides sensory information - produces vitamin Dskeletal system organsbones, cartilages, associated ligaments, and bone marrowskeletal system functions- provides support and protection for other tissues - stores calcium and other minerals - forms blood cellsmuscular system organsskeletal muscles and associated tendonsmuscular system functions- provides movement - provides protection and support for other tissues - generates heat that maintains body temperaturenervous system organsbrain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and sense organsnervous system functions- directs immediate responses to stimuli - coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems - provides and interprets sensory information about external conditionsendocrine system organspituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, and endocrine tissues in other systemsendocrine system functions- directs long term changes in the activities of other organ systems - adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body - controls many structural and functional changes during developmentcardiovascular system organsheart, blood, blood vesselscardiovascular system functions- distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide - distributes heat and assists in control of body temperaturelymphatic system organsspleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and tonsilslymphatic system functions- defends against infection and disease - returns tissue fluids to bloodstreamrespiratory system organsnasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and alveolirespiratory system functions- delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs) - provides oxygen to bloodstream - removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream - produces sounds for communicationdigestive system organsteeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreasdigestive system functions- processes and digests food - absorbs and conserves water - absorbs nutrients - stores energy reservesurinary system organskidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethraurinary system functions- excretes waste products from the blood - controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced - stores urine prior to voluntary elimination - regulates blood ion concentrations and pHmale reproductive system organstestes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, scrotummale reproductive system functions- produces male sex cells (sperm), seminal fluids, and hormones - sexual intercoursefemale reproductive system organsovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, and mammary glandsfemale reproductive system functions- produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones - supports developing embryo from conception to delivery - provides milk to nourish newborn infant - sexual intercoursemetabolismlife sustaining chemical reactions that occur in the cells of our bodyanabolic metabolismto build/storecatabolic metabolismto breakdownATPthe energy source that allows our body to do workATP makeupadenosine (nucleotide + ribose sugar) + 3 phosphate groupsenzyme- type of protein - catalyze all chemical reactions in cells - speed up reactions, but are not consumed in the reaction - most enzymes are highly specific acting on a single substrate molecule or several substrate moleculestypes of enzyme reactionsequilibrium and non-equilibriumtypes of digestionmechanical and chemicaldigestion in mouth- limited digestion - salivary amylase - lingual lipasesalivary amylasebegins the digestion of carbohydrateslingual lipasebegins the digestion of lipidsstomach- contains gastric pits - contains parietal cells, chief cells, G cells, and P/D1 cellsparietal cells- HCL & intrinsic factor - low pH kills pathogens, denatures proteins, breaks down plant walls & animal CT, activation of pepsinogen to pepsinchief cells- pepsinogen (pepsin) - gastric lipasepepsinogenbegins digestion of protein in chief cells in stomachgastric lipasecontinues digestion of lipids in chief cells in stomachG cells- mostly in pylorus - gastrin (hormone)gastrin (hormone)stimulates product release by the chief cells & parietal cells; and gastric motilityP/D1 cells- mostly in the fundus - ghrelin (hormone)ghrelin (hormone)- initiates hunger (secretion decreases shortly after eating) - antagonistic to leptin, which is released from adipose tissue and signals satietyleptina protein produced by fat cells that is a hormone acting mainly in the regulation of appetite and fat storagesmall intestine- 90% of nutrient absorption occurs here (10% in LI) - 3 parts - contain villi and the microvilliparts of the small intestine- duodenum - jejunum - ileumduodenum- curves in a c - receives chyme from the stomach & digestive enzymes from the pancreas & liverjejunummost of the chemical digestion & absorption occurs hereileum- contains Peyer's patches, protects the SI from bacteria from the LI - ends at ileocecal valvepancreatic alpha amylaseenzyme from the pancreas that continues carbohydrate digestionpancreatic lipasefinishes lipid digestiontrypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase A&Bproenzymes from the pancreas that continues protein digestionsucrase, maltase, isomaltase, and lactasebrush border enzymes that finish carbohydrate digestionaminopeptidase, tripeptidase, dipeptidylpeptidasebrush border enzyme that finishes amino acid (protein) digestionenteropeptidasebrush border enzyme that cleaves trypsinogen to trypsin (from pancreas)CCKhormone that controls pancreatic enzyme release and gallbladder contractionsecretinhormones that controls bicarbonate release from the pancreasgastrinhormone that controls gastric motility; stomach enzyme releasepancreasempties enzymes into the pancreatic duct, which joins the common bile duct & empties into the duodenal ampullapancreas components- digestive enzymes, water, & ions - pancreatic alpha-amylase - pancreatic lipase - trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase, and proelastaselivers functions- metabolic regulation - hematological regulation - bile productionmetabolic regulation- stable blood glucose - release & store FAs as needed - removes excess AAs to make protein or use them to make glucose or store as FAs - urea cycle (removes nitrogen) to make urea - storage of fat-soluble vitamins & B12 - stores ironhematological regulationconverts cholecalciferol to calcidiolbile productionsynthesized from cholesterolfunctions of bile- emulsifies lipid droplets - bile salts form micelles so that FAs can be absorbed by enterocytes - bile salts reabsorbed in the ileum, travel through hepatic portal circulation back to liver, enterohepatic circulation of bilegallbladderstores & concentrates bile, releases bile when stimulated by CCKlarge intestine- stores wastes, reabsorbs water - resident bacteria produce some vitamins (K, biotin, and pantothenic acid)large intestine parts- cecum - colon - rectumtypes bacteria- probiotics - prebiotics - synbiotics - postbioticsprobioticsfoods can contain live microorganisms that will become part of the gut microbe populationprebioticssubstances that increase the growth of probiotic microorganismssynbioticscontain both probiotics and prebioticspostbioticsmetabolic products of probiotic microorganismsepigeneticschanges to gene expression without changing the DNA codenutritional genomicsinteractions between genetics and nutritioncarbohydrate dietary guidelines- 45 - 65% of kcals should come from carbs - half of these should be whole grainscarbohydrate RDA130gobligatory usersbody tissues that cannot use alternative sources when glucose is unavailable (red blood cells & nerve tissue)monosaccharidessimplest simple carbohydrateglucosecomes from starches and sucrosefructosecomes from fruit; most is converted to glucosegalactosecomes from lactose in dairy products; most is converted to glucosedisaccharides- two monosaccharidestypes of disaccharidesmaltose, sucrose, and lactosestructural forms of starchamylose and amylopectinamylosea linear chain of glucose molecules bonded together by a-1, 4 glycosidic bondsamylopectinamylopectin consists of glucose molecules bonded together in a highly branched arrangementglycogenmajor storage of carbohydrate in animal tissues, more branched than amylopectinsoluble fiber- viscous fiber - attracts water to feces - reduces blood cholesterol - controls blood glucoseinsoluble fiber- non-fermentable fiber - speeds up transit time in the GI- natural laxative - provides bulk to fecessalivary amylase- located in salivary glands - complex carbs - di and trisaccharides - breaks bonds between simple sugarspancreatic alpha amylase- located in salivary glands - complex carbs - di and trisaccharides - breaks bonds between simple sugarsmaltase, sucrase, lactase- brush border of small intestines - monosaccharides - found in membrane surface of microvillicarbohydrate absorption transportersNa+-K+ ATPase SGLT1 GLUT5 GLUT2insulin- released from the pancreas after eating when blood glucose rises - stimulates storage pathways (anabolic)glucagen- released from the pancreas in between meals when blood glucose drops - stimulates break-down pathwaysglycemic indexratio of blood glucose in response to a food compared to a reference food like white bread (quality of food)glycemic loadmeasures both quality and quantity taken in during a mealmetabolic syndrome diagnosis- blood pressure of 130/85 mmHg or higher - high density lipoprotein (men with HDL <40 or women <50 mg/dl) - fasting blood glucose level of 100 mg/dl or higher - triglyceride level of 150 mg/dl or higher - obesity (wait circumference >40 for men or >35 for womenlipid dietary guidelines for americans- recommended fat intake between 20-35% of kcalsAHA lipid recommendations- no more than 5-6% of kcals from saturated fats - recommends limiting trans fats - circulating cholesterol reduced by limiting saturated and trans fatssaturated fatty acid- no carbon to carbon double bond - solid @ room tempunsaturated fatty acid- with one or more double bond - liquid @ room tempmonounsaturated (MUFA)one double bondpolyunsaturated (PUFA)two or more double bondsglycerolipids- mono, di, and tri-esters of glycerol and FAs - most fatty acids found in nature as thisphospholipids- contain phosphate group - glycerol core structurecholesterolthe most common example of a sterol/steroidlipid absorption step 1- enterocytes uptake the micelles (passive diffusion) and converts FAs, MAGs, cholesterol & lysophophosphatidycholines back to TAGs, cholesterol esters, & phospholipidslipid absorption step 2- fatty acids, MAGs, cholesterol, fat soluble vitamins & lysophosphatidycholines are incorporated into micelleslipid absorption step 3- incorporated into chylomicrons which are excreted into the lymph via a lactealvery low density lipoprotein (VLDL)- 2nd largest lipoprotein - 60% triglycerideslow density lipoprotein (LDL)- 2nd smallest lipoprotein - 50% cholesterolhigh density lipoprotein (HDL)- smallest lipoprotein - 50% proteinchylomicron- largest lipoprotein - 90% triglyceridesparts of proteindipeptides, tripeptides, oligopeptides, polypeptidesdipeptidestwo amino acidstripeptidesthree amino acidsoligopeptides4-9 amino acidspolypeptidesgreater than 10 amino acidsprimary structure of proteinsingle polypeptide chain of AAssecondary structurehydrogen bonding produces alpha helices or beta sheetstertiary structureresults from hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions of R groups and disulfide bondsquaternary structuremultiple tertiary polypeptide structures coming together to from 1 proteinessential amino acids- phenylalanine - valine - tryptophan - threonine - isoleucine - methionine - histidine - arginine (not essential for infants) - leucine - lysinecomplete proteins- high quality proteins - contains all 9 essential amino acidsincomplete proteins- low quality proteins - do not contain all 9 essential amino acidscomplementary proteinscombinations of plant proteins that provide all 9 essential amino acidscomplementary protein combinations- grains & vegetables - legumes & grains - nuts/seeds & legumes - vegetable & nuts/seedsinitiation (transcription)DNA molecule unwinds and separates to form a small open complexelongation (transcription)RNA polymerase moves along strand synthesizing and mRNA moleculetermination (transcription)in prokaryotes there are two ways in which transcription is terminatedtranscriptionsynthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA templatetranslationprocess of forming a polypeptide chain from mRNA codonstranslation steps- tRNA charging - initiation - elongation - terminationtranscription steps- initiation - elongation - terminationtRNA charging (translation)amino acid attaches to its respective tRNAinitiation (translation)the charged tRNA attaches to the start codon, the small subunit of ribosome binds to mRNA, large subunit bindselongation (translation)according to codons found in mRNA the polypeptide chain keeps growingtermination (translation)when ribosome reaches a stop codon, such as UAA, UAG, or UGA, translation is finished since these codons lack tRNAsDIAASdigestibility indispensable amino acid scoreAA absorption rates- big hydrocarbon mass increases affinity for AA - essential AAs are absorbed faster than nonessential AAs - neutral AAs have greater affinity than charged AAspositive energy balance- more energy in than energy that is being expended (weight gain) - appropriate in growing children; in pregnancynegative energy balance- more energy expended than take in (weight loss)body fat distributionwhere fat is distributed in the body may be more important than the quantity of body fatupper body (android type) obesity- apple shape - insulin resistance, fatty liver, high blood lipids, heart disease - high testosterone, alcohol, & smoking encourage upper body densitylower body (gynoid type) obesity- pear shapemale waist to hip (W/H)less than .9female waist to hip (W/H)less than .8female waist circumference riskshigh risk: > 35in very high risk: >43.5inmale waist circumferencehigh risk: >40in very high risk: >47inskinfold principlethe amount of subcutaneous fat is proportional to a person's total body fatskinfold accuracyassuming good technique and proper equations, accuracy is within +/- 3.5%Bioelectrical Impedance Analysisa procedure to mathematically (linear regression) predict FFM(kg) from (Height^2/R); where R= bioelectrical resistive impedance in ohms (Ω)BIA theory- lean tissue is more electrically conductive (less resistance) than fat tissue because of greater electrolyte content (sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium) - fat tissue gives greater resistance and impedancebehavior modification strategies1. set realistic goals 2. mindful eating 3. chain breaking 4. stimulus control 5. cognitive restructuring 6. contingency management 7. self-monitoring 8. plan for relapses and get back on track 9. social support systemenergy expenditure24-EE = RMR +TEF + TEE + TED (+NEAT)RMRresting metabolic rateTEFthermic effect of foodTEEthermic effect of exerciseTEDthermic effect of disease and injuryNEATrefers to fidgeting-like activities; adaptive thermogenesis