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Ban Zhao

Female Confucian scholar in China (45-116 CE) that wrote about Confucianism as it applied to women; "Lessons for Women"


!Kung woman in a gatherer-hunter society;

Women generally collected plant foods and water, providing 60-80% of sustenance to the group, while men hunted. However, these were not strict and people do jobs as needed with little or no shame. So women could grow up hunting and men could do gathering. Women generally took care of children and preparing of food, however, this didn't restrict them to homes, because these activities were generally done with, or close to, others, so women can socialize and help each other. Men also engaged in these activities.

Bhagavad Gita

Best-known work in Hinduism; part of the ancient Hindu epic, the Mahabharata; Krishna told Arjuna not to grieve because bodies come to an end, but the embodied self is enduring


No women's rights; men allowed to beat women; lived in modern day Turkey

Distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia

Rig Veda

Sacrifice as creation; Brahman

Contains several mythological and poetical accounts of the origin of the world, hymns praising the gods, and ancient prayers for life, prosperity, etc


Grecian leader; wrote about what it meant to be Greek

Hammurabi's Code

King makes civil law (first instance of separation of church and state?); fact that it was written was probably more significant than what was in it

Book of the Dead

Egyptian path to the afterlife; heart will be weighed; ma'at

Allegory of the Cave

Plato; in theory, sitting in front of a wall, light behind


Precursor to the Roman empire; Rome under Etruscan rule; Romulus and Remus

Persian Wars

Greece vs Persia; disruption of trade ports; Persia tried to take over; Greeks maintained liberty, self confidence; Persia still had influence


Siddhartha Gautama; tried to find enlightenment; Four Noble Truths (that suffering is an ingrained part of existence; that the origin of suffering is craving for sensuality, acquisition of identity, and annihilation; that suffering can be ended; and that following the Noble Eightfold Path is the means to accomplish this)

Warring States Period

413-221 BC; samurai; decline of monarchy

Mandate of Heaven

Divine right to rule


Persian religion; monarchs followed ethical codes

Ahura Mazda (good) vs Ahiram (evil)

Treated humans as capable of choosing between good and evil


Seaborne; advanced writing system (ours adapted from them); Carthage and Syracuse

Living in modern-day Lebanon; "Purple people"


Greek city-state; involved in Peloponnesian War (against Athens); warlike; women had more rights than Athenian women


Faithful follower and patron of Buddhism

Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC

Devotee of ahimsa (nonviolence), love, truth, tolerance and vegetarianism


Nomads; Greeks thought they were barbarians


Social conformity/assigned duties; ethical man was superior; proposed a moral framework stressing the correct performance of ritual (li), responsibility and loyalty to the family (xiao), and perfection of moral character to become a "superior man" (junzi)-that is, a man defined by benevolence and goodness rather than by the pursuit of profit

New Kingdom (Egypt)

Height of empire; commercial/cultural trade; city-like; Amenhotep->Akhenaten; monotheism (first instance)

Legalism (China)

Prior to Confucianism; used to justify change; new business owners

Grew out of the writings of Master Xun toward the end of the Warring States period; he believed that men and women were innately bad and therefore required moral education and authoritarian control

Focused on achieving order by through strict laws and punishment


Greek city


Mesoamerican; "People of the land of rubber"; before or during Aztecs (mother or sister)?


Civilization south of Egypt on Nile; traded with Egypt; mutual influence

Silk Road

Trade route linking China to Egypt, Persia, Mesopotamia, and some of Europe


Greek; philosophical/political thinking; secular disciplines such as history and bio; popular entertainment in theaters; cosmopolitan

Athenian democracy

Civilian/civic duty; equal for all males

Alexander the Great

Macedonian emperor of Greek empire; wanted to fuse (not dominate) cultures; had a lot of wives from a lot of places

Roman republic

Another Greece; two types of people (plebeians and ?) gained political equality

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