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Female Confucian scholar in China (45-116 CE) that wrote about Confucianism as it applied to women; "Lessons for Women"
!Kung woman in a gatherer-hunter society;
Women generally collected plant foods and water, providing 60-80% of sustenance to the group, while men hunted. However, these were not strict and people do jobs as needed with little or no shame. So women could grow up hunting and men could do gathering. Women generally took care of children and preparing of food, however, this didn't restrict them to homes, because these activities were generally done with, or close to, others, so women can socialize and help each other. Men also engaged in these activities.
Best-known work in Hinduism; part of the ancient Hindu epic, the Mahabharata; Krishna told Arjuna not to grieve because bodies come to an end, but the embodied self is enduring
No women's rights; men allowed to beat women; lived in modern day Turkey
Distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia
Sacrifice as creation; Brahman
Contains several mythological and poetical accounts of the origin of the world, hymns praising the gods, and ancient prayers for life, prosperity, etc
King makes civil law (first instance of separation of church and state?); fact that it was written was probably more significant than what was in it
Greece vs Persia; disruption of trade ports; Persia tried to take over; Greeks maintained liberty, self confidence; Persia still had influence
Siddhartha Gautama; tried to find enlightenment; Four Noble Truths (that suffering is an ingrained part of existence; that the origin of suffering is craving for sensuality, acquisition of identity, and annihilation; that suffering can be ended; and that following the Noble Eightfold Path is the means to accomplish this)
Persian religion; monarchs followed ethical codes
Ahura Mazda (good) vs Ahiram (evil)
Treated humans as capable of choosing between good and evil
Seaborne; advanced writing system (ours adapted from them); Carthage and Syracuse
Living in modern-day Lebanon; "Purple people"
Greek city-state; involved in Peloponnesian War (against Athens); warlike; women had more rights than Athenian women
Faithful follower and patron of Buddhism
Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC
Devotee of ahimsa (nonviolence), love, truth, tolerance and vegetarianism
Social conformity/assigned duties; ethical man was superior; proposed a moral framework stressing the correct performance of ritual (li), responsibility and loyalty to the family (xiao), and perfection of moral character to become a "superior man" (junzi)-that is, a man defined by benevolence and goodness rather than by the pursuit of profit
New Kingdom (Egypt)
Height of empire; commercial/cultural trade; city-like; Amenhotep->Akhenaten; monotheism (first instance)
Prior to Confucianism; used to justify change; new business owners
Grew out of the writings of Master Xun toward the end of the Warring States period; he believed that men and women were innately bad and therefore required moral education and authoritarian control
Focused on achieving order by through strict laws and punishment
Greek; philosophical/political thinking; secular disciplines such as history and bio; popular entertainment in theaters; cosmopolitan
Alexander the Great
Macedonian emperor of Greek empire; wanted to fuse (not dominate) cultures; had a lot of wives from a lot of places
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