C485 Quiz 7

1) What enzyme activities are required to metabolize an odd carbon unsaturated fatty acid and an even carbon unsaturated fatty acid.
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11) In what other ways does the generation of AcCoA in the cytoplasm address a problem of fatty acid biosynthesis.the process forms 8 NADPH which accounts for some of the 14 needed for palmitate synthesis12) Draw the structures of ketone bodies. Where are they synthesized and where are they predominantly used.they are made in the liver and predominantly used in cardiac muscle but can be used by the brain under starvation conditions13) Calculate the energy yield from beta-hydroxy butyrate. (You will have to do a little thinking here.)oxidation of beta-hydroxy butyrate creates an NADH and a succinyl CoA which is broken down into 2 AcCoA however 1 GTP cannot be formed from succinyl CoA which brings total to 22.5-1= 21.514) Outline (structures) the process by which ketone bodies are made.15) What are peroxisomes and what do they do? How is this process different from normal beta oxidation of fatty acids?Peroxisomes degrade long fatty acids by using FADH2 to convert O2 into HOOH during the initial dehydrogenase reaction16) Under what conditions would you expect ketone body formation? Why? Explain the statement - "fats burn in the flame of carbohydrates".ketone bodies are formed from the AcCoA produced from FA degradation. Under starvation conditions, oxaloacetate is being used in gluconeogenesis and cannot be used to bring AcCoA into CAC17) How does the brain adapt to starvation?the brain can operate on up to 75% ketone bodies18) How does the energy charge of a cell affect the regulation of FA synthesis. Describe how this takes place and the role of any hormones in this process.Low energy turns off FA synthesis. AMP will bind AMPK which turns off AcCoA carboxylase19) List the small molecules that activate FA synthesis and briefly say how they do this.1) Citrate - activates carboxylase through polymerization 2) malonyl CoA - turns off Cat1 so synthesis and degradation arent happening simultaneously20) List the small molecules that inhibit FA synthesis and briefly say how they do this.1) epinephrine - activates AMPK which inactivates AcCoA carboxylase 2) Palmitoyl CoA - depolymerization21) How does malonyl CoA affect FA metabolism? Explain the logic of this.Malonyl CoA acts as the high energy molecule the drives the reaction towards completion. ATP used in the carboxylation of AcCoA to malonyl CoA is stored then released during decarboxylation1) What is the first step in amino acid breakdown?conversion of an AA to an alpha-keto-acid