Bio Lab Practical study guide

plant-like protists (algae)
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Terms in this set (39)
Apicomplexonscause diseases (malaria, toxoplasma), endoparasitesCiliates (cilia)macro and micronucleus, animal-like protistFlagellates (flagella)Animal-like protists, 2 types: Dinoflagellates and Trichonympha (zooflagellate, zoomastigophorans)Dinoflagellatesanimal-like protist, flagellate, hard cellulose case with one flagellum, heterotrophic and sometimes photosynthetic, cause red tidesTrichonymphaflagellated animal-like protist that lives within the digestive systems of termites and makes it possible for them to digest cellulose in woodnonvascular plantsalternation of generations, Anthocerophyta (hornwort), Bryophyta (true mosses), Hepatophyta (liverwort)alternation of generationsthe alternation between the haploid gametophyte and the diploid sporophyte in a plant's life cycle. Sporophyte: 2n diploid, meiosis to create spores Gametophyte: 1n haploid, gametes fuse to make a zygote that undergoes mitosisSporophyte2n, Diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism. Makes haploid spores by meiosis, nonvascularGametophyte1n, gamete-producing plant (sex cells); multicellular haploid phase of a plant life cycle, gametes fuse to make a zygote that undergoes mitosis, nonvascularAnthocerophyta (Hornworts)stomata on sporophyte, obscure, nonvascularBryophyta (True Mosses)nonvascular, spirally arranged leaflike structures: gametophyte (male gams =antheridia: sperm; female gams=archegonia: eggs) , conspicuous sporophyte grows from female archegoniumHepatophyta (Liverworts)nonvascular, not a moss because no thick midrib, differently sized leaves, gemmae cups (asexual reproduction) haploid gameotphyteseedless vascular plantsPlants that have vascular tissue but reproduce by spores (ferns, club mosses, and horsetails); vascular tissues for water and nutrients; phloem: nutrients, hormones; xylem: water and dissolved minerals; true roots, stems, leaves (conduct water and nutrients; holds plant up; photosynthetic part)Lychophyta (club mosses)seedless vascular, mature sporophytes make strobili--> spores via meiosis, inconspicuous gametophyte, heterosporous: gametophytes are of different sizes, homosporous: gametophytes are same sizesPsilophyta (whisk ferns)seedless vascular, synagiums (yellow balls): mature sporophytes, 2 genera: Psilotum and TmesipterisPterophyta (ferns)seedless vascular, fronds=leaves, grow from underground rhizomes, sori=sporangia clusters, heart-shaped gametophyteSphenophyta (horsetails)strobili (tip): scale-like sporangiophores (make spores), 1 genus: Equisetum, fossil relatives looked cooler, microphylls arranged at nodes: these are their leavesGymnospermsProduce seeds not enclosed in an ovule in that mature on the surface of a cone scale Ex: cycads, ginkgoes, gnetophyta, conifersAngiosperms (flowering plants)Magnoliophyta, very diverse, includes monocots and dicots, undergo double fertilization, both zygote and endosperm of seeds develop from gamete fusion, bright colors, textures, and nectar attract pollinatorsMonocotsAngiosperm that have seeds containing one embryonic leaf, diverged from basil dicots, leaves with parallel venation, no secondary growth, flower parts in multiples of threeDicotsFlowering plants that have seeds containing two embryonic leaves, leaves with netted ventilation, can be divided into two groups: basal dicot and eudicotsbasal dicotType of angiosperm, monosulcate pollen (top)EudicotsType of angiosperm, tricolpate (bottom) rest of dicots, flower parts in multiples of four or five, secondary growth presentCycadophyta (cycads)Gymnosperm -Dioecious sporophytes (male and female plants) -microsporophyll of male sporophyte produces microsporangia containing microspores (2n) -megasporophyll of female cycads has megasporangia that houses megasporocytes -divide via meiosis to form four megaspores, only one of which forms the megagametophyte with an archegonium that houses the eggArchegoniumfemale reproductive structure in some plants, including mosses and liverwortsantheridiumMale reproductive structure in some algae and plantsGinkgophyta (ginkgo)-monotypic: only one species, ginkgo biloba -several extinct species -dioecious (different sexes) -deciduous (sheds leaves) -ginkgo leaves have no mid red, but do have dichotomous venation -Focus on macroanatomyGnetophyta (Ephedra gnetum)-only three Genera: gnetum, welwitschia, ephedra -monoecious: plants have both female and male reproductive organs -welwitschia mirabilis: cool, monotypic plant species that can live for 1000+ years -ephedra: contains shrub like plants with jointed stems. Leaves occur in groups of two or three at nodesConiferophyta (conifers)-pines, cypresses, spruces, firs, junipers -woody: mostly evergreens -needle like leaves in Pines -reside in bundles (fascicles) -produce male and female cones - male: microspongiate pollen cones produce pollen, their pollen has "wings" -female: ovulate seed cones have megasporangia on the upper surface of the scale which houses the female gametophyte, each gametophyte house is 2 to 6 archegonia, and each archegonium house is one large egg

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