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Western Civilization ch 2

Terms from chapter 2
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Mycenae
most prominent Greek city; had excellent trade until stopped by marauders; ruled by monarch
Hellas
Greek name for Greece
Troy
rich city of obscure ethnic origin in Asia Minor near Dardanelles; attacked according to Homer
ostracism
where the whole people could vote once a year to expel any man whom they considered potentially dangerous
Ionia
part of Greece rebelling from Persian rule
Marathon
a plain in SE Greece, in Attica: the Athenians defeated the Persians here 490 b.c.
polis
independent city-state
acropolis
"high city"; section of a polis reserved for temples and other official buildings
agora
large open space of a polis that served as a main public square and civic center; was used as public market and court of law but still considered holy
tyrant
autocrat who ruled without strict legal foundation
Sparta
most influential of all Dorian states; conquered Messenia and made them slaves (helots); had public assembly; formed Peloponnesian League (alliance); lived in Laconia
Attica
a region in SE Greece, surrounding Athens: under Athenian rule in ancient times
Draco
Athenian statesman who codified law on homicide
Solon
poet and statesman who in an economic crisis canceled all agricultural debts and forbade further borrowing against the body; decreed only product of soil that could be exported was olive oil; changed weights to bring Athens into wider trade; divided citizens into four classes and let the highest two hold office
Psistratus
popular Athenian military leader who seized power; tyrant; redistributed land; built public works
Dorian Greeks
Greeks ending the Myacean Age through invasion; settled in the Peloponnese
Mount Olympus
a mountain in NE Greece, on the boundary between Thessaly and Macedonia; mythical abode of the greater Grecian gods
Darius
king of Persia who expanded his empire throughout Asia Minor; lost in attempting to conquer Greece
Hesiod
first major post-Homeric poet; wrote the almanac Works and Days
Xerxes
Darius's son who swore to avenge the loss at Athens and was only defeated there again
Thermopylae
location of first defeat of Greeks in the Invasion of 480
Peloponnesian War
long war that sealed the doom of the Greek city-states; Spartans frightened by rise of Athenian power and declared preventative war; first ten years called the Archidamian War (a king of Sparta); next "Suspicious Truce" where neutral Melos was forced into Athenian empire and Syracuse was attacked as requested by Segesta; Athens later surrendered from lack of grain
archons
administrators who managed the city of Athens; were chosen by lot