Global Terrorism Part two Midterm
Terms in this set (84)
Which of the following is NOT an argument used by the government to encourage censorship?
-democracy is threatetned when the gov't openly censors information; censorship could do more to damage freedom than the terrorist attacks themselves. Others believe that in times of emergency information must be controlled to ensure the survival of the state; America was fighting a new type of war and some form of censorship was required. (The first was national security, a powerful excuse used in the time of emergency).
Journalists who join combat units are known as _________ .
The classic approach for television is the ____________. It is usually short and designed to provide the latest information.
What terrorist group created the underground video network known as As Sahaab?
Terrorists selected targets for maximum ________.
Following the 9-11 attacks, media began reporting several ______ attacks across the nation.
-the use of computers to attack technological targets or physical attacks on computer; an attractive low-risks strategy. Computers allow terrorist groups to remain connected, providing a means for covert discussions/anonymity. The greatest fear of cyberterrorism concerns, catastrophic or multiple system failures. (The use of information technology by terrorists to promote a political agenda)
Margaret Gonzalez-Perez found that the role of women in terrorist groups is more closely determined by the ____ orientation of an organization than its tactics.
Treatments of antibiotics are a suitable defense against _________ attacks.
There are four types of biological agents:
Natural Poisons, or toxins that occur without human modification, viruses, bacteria, plagues.
Which of the following tactics is most often employed by terrorists?
According to the text, _____ is the only group that has made an effort to obtain a nuclear device.
What biological agent infected citizens through the mail in the wake of the September 11, 2001, attacks?
_____ enter the body through ingestion, respiration, or contact.
Most dirty-bomb scenarios are based on the premise that a ______agent will be used with a conventional explosive.
The Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK)
The _____ in eastern Turkey conducted the least deadly attacks in the course of modern suicide bombing, killing an average of two people per incident
Transnational economic targets
As the world moves closer to a global economy, terrorists have found that striking _____ increases the effectiveness of operations.
-Tourism, energy, and shipping (3 types of transnational attack). Increases terrorist groups ability to move and hide. Use as a force multiplier. If gov'ts run counterterrorist operations against underground networks and sources, terrorist turn the tables by striking the economic system. Some systems are tied closely to the international economy, and they present tempting targets to terrorism.
Which of the following is NOT a target of transnational attack?
-terrorism that exists inside a political entity. For example, European colonialists created the nation of Rwanda by combining the lands of two tribes that literally hate each other. The two tribes fight to eliminate each other. This is endemic to political violence in Rwanda.
The LTTE Black Tigers
According to the text, the _____ have conducted more suicide bombings than any other group.
secrecy, reconnaissance, and rehearsal.
Rohan Gunaratna sees three things that all suicide bombings have in common
Terrorists use ______ to increase their attacking power.
In 2003, Al Qaeda began targeting oil facilities in what country?
After the September 11 attacks, the federal government immediately budgeted $ 4.8 billion to protect the ____ industry.
Highly enriched uranium
-HEU; a process that increases the proportion of a radioactive isotope in uranium (U-235), making it suitable for industrial use. It can also be used to make nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons are made from either HEU or plutonium.
Nerve agents, blood agents, choking agents, and blistering agents are all examples of ______agents.
6 tactics; bombing, hijacking, arson, assault, kidnapping, and hostage taking.
Which of the following is NOT considered one of Jenkins' six tactics of terrorism?
Ethnic terrorists try to forge a _____ identity
Spraying walls with nationalistic graffiti
According to the text, the ETA's first "attacks" involved ____________.
Irish Republican Party
The political party of the IRA was known as ________.
As Spanish authorities opened opportunities for democracy and national expression, the ETA transformed itself into a(n) _____ movement.
Irish Republican Army IRA
Which organization is viewed as to have set the stage for modern separatist terrorism?
Anti-Terrorists Liberation Groups (GAL)
Disgruntled Spanish police officers and government officials comprised the death squads known as ______.
According to most analysts and observers, the early policies and tactics of the _____ played an important role in the rebirth of the IRA.
The Liberation tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE)
The Tamils felt they were systematically excluded from Sri Lankas economic life; LTTE formed to fight for the Tamil minority-LTTE knows for child kidnapping, suicide bombings, and assassinations. (Sri Lankan military and policy forces launched a major offensive against the LTTE in 2008; fighting ended in May 2009, bringing one of Asia's longest violent separatist conflicts to an end.
In 1972 British paratroopers opened fire on Catholic protesters in Londonderry - a day that has come to be known as _______.
The Basque region incorporates land regions in
The Independent Monitoring commission (IMC) investigates claims of both terrorist and governmental abuses in what region?
The UK established its Middle Eastern military headquarters in _____ at the end of World War II.
The Mau Mau
-Originated in Kenya 1950-1960; rumors of a violent movement taking place in the Kikuyu tribal area. It was based on rural areas. Was based on tribal rites and ceremonies where symbols were used to solidify the group. Violence was frequently typified by massacres. Brought an overwhelming British military and police response with massive detainment and torture. Insurgents suffered the brunt of casualties. Repression destroyed it, but it brought it many of the political reforms that it has been seeking.
The National Organization of Cypriot Fighters ( EOKA) was focused on ____.
A jihadist leader in _____, Shamil Basayev engineered several operations resulting in mass civilian casualties.
The PKK was founded in 1974 to fight for an independent _____.
Turkey and the Kurds
. The leader of the PKK ordered the end of a suicide-bombing campaign, calling for peace between _______ in 2006.
Islam Mystics who are inspired by the collapse of the Soviet Union, not by Osama Bin Laden. (The Uighars are ethnic Turkmen and they have lived in and governed parts of the Xinjiang province for 200 years. The Chinese have settled the area with ethnic Chinese, displacing the Uighars)
Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)
The group known as _____ has conscripted thousands of Ugandan children forcing them into ranks or mutilating or killing them.
According to Joe Barkan, _____ is vital to the U.S. struggle against terrorism
The work of David Galula inspired the development of the ________ doctrine in the U.S. military.
Theatrical Center in Moscow
In October 2002, about 50 Chechen rebels took over
The failure to separate the population from the insurgents is an example of the parallel between the French experience in Algeria and the initial American response to_____ insurgency
IRA (Irish Republican party)
Which organization is viewed as to have set the stage for modern terrorism?
Beijing claims that ____________ are attempting to overthrow Chinese rule in the Xinjiang (New Frontier) province and establish an Islamic state.
Britain's primary foreign policy efforts in Africa have been aimed at expanding economic development and increasing __________.
Turkey has lost 40,000 people to
What country's leader proclaimed that, "Israel had no right to exist and that nuclear weapons could be used to eradicate the country"?
Moses, Jesus, Abraham, and Mohammed (Noah)
Who are the four major Prophets of Islam?
The Quran is a codified version of the communication Mohammed received from
The initial split of the Islam faith into the Sunnis and Shiites was based on the issue of ____.
The _____ was a Turkish based government that lasted for six hundred years until 1924.
The _____ Declaration signed by the United Kingdom in November 1917 promised a homeland for Jews in the geographical area of biblical Israel.
Sunnis compose an estimated ______ percent of all Muslims today
Islam is frequently described as a monotheistic religion based on ____ tenets, or pillars
(1-a confession of faith in God and acceptance of Mohammed as God's last and greatest prophets, 2- ritual prayers with the community, 3-giving alms, 4-fasting, especially during holy periods, 5-making a pilgrimage to Mohammed birthplace Mecca.)
Which of the following is NOT a pillar of Islamic faith?
Sayyid Qutb (And its militant tone led to Qutb's second arrest and subsequent hanging by the Egyptian government in 1966.)
Who penned the 1965 work, Milestones, which outlined the theology and ideology of jihadist revolution with militant tone?
The Al Qaeda Manual cites _____ as a source of inspiration
Taqi al Din ibn Taymiyyah, an Islamic scholar, called for jihad, the destruction of heretics and invaders, calling it the _____ of Islam
The birth of Israel
May 15, 1948 (The United Nations recognized the partition of Palestine and the modern nation-state of Israel)
At the turn of the 19th Century, European Jews, separated from their ancient homeland for nearly 2,000 years lead a political movement called ___________ in the hopes of creating their own nation.
The ______ was a war between Israel and its Arab neighbors fought in June 1967
Sixth Day War
In 1978, Israel launched a minor invasion of _________, followed by a full-scale attack in 1982.
In 1959, Arafat formed _____, a guerrilla organization to wage a campaign against the Israelis.
The first spontaneous uprising against Israel, which lasted from 1987 to 1993, is referred to as the _____.
The al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades are based in _______refugee camps.
The al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades were organized along military lines and became one of the first secular groups in the Middle East to use ___________.
Is centered in Lebanon; grew when revolutionary guards joined Shiites in Lebanon after the 1982 Israeli invasion. Began as a social movement, evolved into an umbrella group covering independent operators and its own military wing. Employed suicide bombings and other attacks against Israeli targets. It also created defense and successfully fought Israel in the 2006 war. Critics maintain that it is an international terrorist organization representing Iranian foreign policy
Many analysts believe that the majority of funding for Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
Activities come from ________. -
Most of Hezbollah's activities deal with the politics of _____ and the vast social service network it maintains in the south.
___ became the most important tactic of all the Palestinian terrorist groups at the beginning of the al Aqsa Intifada.
Black September was a splinter group formed from which terrorist organization?
The Islamic Resistance Movement, created in 1987, has come to be known as ___.
The Party of God is also known as _______.
The shadowy organization known as Islamic Jihad is connected to which terrorist organization?
Hamas versus Fatah's
Hamas controlled the majority of seats in the Palestinian Parliament, while Mahmud Abbas retained the presidency. This set the stage for a confrontation between Hamas and Fatah. Disheartened by the split in Palestinian leadership, Saudi Arabia brokered a power-sharing arrangement between Hamas and Fatah. Hamas and Fatah never really considered themselves full rtners, and violent skirmishes between the two groups broke out in November 2006. All pretense of power sharing broke down in June when Hamas openly attacked Fatah's strong points in Gaza. Fatah responded by forcibly closing all Hamas offices on the West Bank, but Hamas grew stronger in Gaza. By June 15, Hamas had driven Fatah from Gaza, and Abbas had dissolved the gov't. He formed a new parliament and cabinet, excluding Hamas.
Israel controversial counterterrorism policies
Many Israeli police and military units have established excellent reputations in counterterrorist operations. Mossad, the Israeli intelligence service, is known for its expertise. The Israeli police are known how to handle bombs, snipers, kidnappings, and everyday crime. The tactical operations of these units are second to none. Tactical operations, however, differ from policies. Gov't decide the broad philosophy and practice of a policy, and tactical operations take place within the guidelines of long-term political goals. Policy involves a strategic view of a problem and the means to settle it. When Israel first suicide bombings, the gov't implemented a controversial policy called BULLDOZING, whose purpose was to destroy the family homes of suicide bombers. Bulldozing would be more painful than the pleasure of economic reward. PUNISHING Lebanon was another controversial policy for the sins of Hezbollah. Israel launched its first invasion of Lebanon to rid the south of the PLO. That ended after 18 -year occupations and the creation of a new enemy, Hezbollah. Another controversial policy was THE WALL that Israel began constructing. On the surface, this might seem to be an uncontroversial issue, but the path of the wall grabbed the attention of the world. The concrete and barbed wire barrier snaked through Palestine areas, often putting eater and other resources in the hands of the Israelis. It also separated people from services, jobs, and their families. The most controversial aspect of Israeli counterterrorist policy is SELECTIVE ASSASSINATION. Israeli has maintained a consistent policy against terrorism. When it is struck, it hits back hard. Israeli commandos and the IDF units have allegedly killed opposition leaders in the past, but the policy expanded during the al Aqsad intifada when Israel began the wholesale assassination of Hamas leadership.