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Response Facilitation

observer displays a previously learned behavior more often after seeing a model being rewarded for the behavior

Response Inhibition

observer displays a previously learned behavior less frequently after seeing a model punished

Response Disinhibition

observer displays a previously forbidden or punished behavior more often after seeing a model get away with the behavior

Model Criteria

Competence, Prestige or Power, Gender Appropriate, Situationally Relevant


The confidence in one's ability to execute a behavior successfully, (generally situation specific)


Monitoring and evaluating our own behavior.


the ability to judge ones own behavior

Self-imposed contingencies

reinforcement (rewards/punishment) provided when accomplishing or failing to accomplish pre-set goals or standards

Reciprocal Causation

Social Learning Theory's view that environment, behavior, and person are essential in building a foundation or learning, and that each influences the other.

Descriptive Research

Researcher searches for rich, detailed in-depth and valid data according to the individual's perception

Correlational Studies

Tests Relationships* between two variables

Experimental Studies

must have, Randomization, Control Group, Manipulation.

Sensorimotor Stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

Preoperational Stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

Concrete Operations Stage

Piaget's third stage of cognitive development (ages 6-11 or 12), during which a child acquires the concepts of reversibility and conservation and is able to attend to 2 or more dimensions of a stimulus at the same time

Formal Operations Stage

Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development (ages 11 or 12 and beyond), which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations

Classical Conditioning

The response occurs as the result of the Stimulus— the learner has no control over whether the response occurs

Operant Conditioning

The response is usually First— the learner can control whether or not it occurs


Any response the increases the frequency of a particular behavior

Expository Instruction

Approach to instruction in which information is presented in more or less the same form in which students are expected to learn it.

PRO:Organization, visual aides, pacing, signals
CON:Puts students in passive roles as learners.

Discovery Learning

Student interaction with the physical or social environment (manipulatives, discussion groups, experiments)

PRO:Relate the key concepts
CON:Incorrect constructions of content may occur, very time consuming

Mastery Learning

Ensuring each student masters the content before moving to more complex ideas.

PRO: better on tests
CON: assumes all students can comprehend at the same level

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