cactus the yeilds a hallucinogenic drug substance used by Native American Indian groups to produce visions
hjh, In attempts to block the construction of this road to MT, Sioux (under Chief Red Cloud) massacred and mutilated 82 soldiers under Capt. Fetterman's command
Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868
treaty under which the U.S. abandoned the Bozeman Trail and created a large Siuox reservation in what is half of South Dakota today.
Battle of Little Bighorn
In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died
Led by Chief Joseph, they fled to Canada after the U.S. authorities tried to put them in a reservation. They eventually surrendered and where placed in a reservation in Kansas, where most of them died. After that they were allowed to live in a reservation in Idaho
Ritual that celebrated a hoped for day of reckoning when settlers would disappear, buffalo would return, and Natives would reunite with ancestors (leaded to Wounded Knee)
American Indian medicine man, chief, and political leader of his tribe at the time of the Custer massacre (Little Bighorn) during the Sioux War
Wounded Knee Massacre
1890 Indian police officers tried to arrest Sitting Bull but when he resisted they shot and killed him, his followers were taken to Wounded Knee and while being disarmed someone fired a shot and the soldiers opened fire and killed over 200 Sioux
In Off-reservation boarding schools, Indian students were placed in nearby homes of white residents and sometimes became virtual slaves.
1928 Boarding school/Indian policy review. Horrible conditions at institutions, ineffective policies, exploitation, suicide. Ends boarding school policy in 1930s. ID loss, mistrust of gov, lost lang and cult, family dysfunction.
Indian reorganization act
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Public Law 280
A method where the US government may assume jurisdiction over Indian reservation land. The act mandated the transfer of legal jurisdiction over to the states.
The federal government's ____ eliminated federal economic support for Native Americans, discontinued the reservation system, and distributed tribal lands among individual Native Americans.
would strengthen sense of autonomy without threatening sense of community and federal government promised to continue federal support until tribes no longer needed it.
American Indian Movement
led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means; purpose was to obtain equal rights for Native Americans; protested at the site of the Wounded Knee massacre
occupation of wounded knee
1971-forced federal governement to reexamine treaties with Native Americans (lasted 71 days)
- authorized secretary of interior to contract with states/ agencies to provide educational services, medical services, agricultural assistance, and social welfare
Seminole Tribe vs Butterworth
(1979) - the supreme court said the tribes had the right to operate bingo on tribal lands
California v Cabazon
(1987) - tribes could conduct gaming operations on their own lands as long as those games were not illegal under state law.
Indian gaming regulatory act
(1988) - authorized casinos on reservations and provided for regulation through the national Indian gaming commission
Native American Church
A religious revitalization movement among Native Americans, also known as the Peyote religion
American Indian Religious Freedom act
a 1978 law that directed federal agencies not to interfere with Native Americans religious practices.