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cactus the yeilds a hallucinogenic drug substance used by Native American Indian groups to produce visions

Bozeman Trail

hjh, In attempts to block the construction of this road to MT, Sioux (under Chief Red Cloud) massacred and mutilated 82 soldiers under Capt. Fetterman's command

Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868

treaty under which the U.S. abandoned the Bozeman Trail and created a large Siuox reservation in what is half of South Dakota today.

Paha Sapa

The Indian name given to the Black Hills of the Dakota territory.

Battle of Little Bighorn

In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died

Nez Perce

Led by Chief Joseph, they fled to Canada after the U.S. authorities tried to put them in a reservation. They eventually surrendered and where placed in a reservation in Kansas, where most of them died. After that they were allowed to live in a reservation in Idaho

Ghost Dance

Ritual that celebrated a hoped for day of reckoning when settlers would disappear, buffalo would return, and Natives would reunite with ancestors (leaded to Wounded Knee)

Sitting Bull

American Indian medicine man, chief, and political leader of his tribe at the time of the Custer massacre (Little Bighorn) during the Sioux War

Wounded Knee Massacre

1890 Indian police officers tried to arrest Sitting Bull but when he resisted they shot and killed him, his followers were taken to Wounded Knee and while being disarmed someone fired a shot and the soldiers opened fire and killed over 200 Sioux

Outing System

In Off-reservation boarding schools, Indian students were placed in nearby homes of white residents and sometimes became virtual slaves.

General Allotment Act

Dawes - Land granted to indian to hope assimilate them into society 1887-1934


separation into portions

Meriam Report

1928 Boarding school/Indian policy review. Horrible conditions at institutions, ineffective policies, exploitation, suicide. Ends boarding school policy in 1930s. ID loss, mistrust of gov, lost lang and cult, family dysfunction.

Indian reorganization act

1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.

Indian Preference

if they have an opening then natives get first pick in selection process of a job


the act of ending something

House of concurrent resolution 108

officially started the termination of tribes

Public Law 280

A method where the US government may assume jurisdiction over Indian reservation land. The act mandated the transfer of legal jurisdiction over to the states.

Relocation Programs

The federal government's ____ eliminated federal economic support for Native Americans, discontinued the reservation system, and distributed tribal lands among individual Native Americans.


would strengthen sense of autonomy without threatening sense of community and federal government promised to continue federal support until tribes no longer needed it.

American Indian Movement

led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means; purpose was to obtain equal rights for Native Americans; protested at the site of the Wounded Knee massacre

occupation of wounded knee

1971-forced federal governement to reexamine treaties with Native Americans (lasted 71 days)

U.S. vs. Washington

trading and fishing rights in the state of washington

Johnson-O'malley Act

- authorized secretary of interior to contract with states/ agencies to provide educational services, medical services, agricultural assistance, and social welfare

impact aid

the money that the give to school districts money to offset property tax

Seminole Tribe vs Butterworth

(1979) - the supreme court said the tribes had the right to operate bingo on tribal lands

California v Cabazon

(1987) - tribes could conduct gaming operations on their own lands as long as those games were not illegal under state law.

Indian gaming regulatory act

(1988) - authorized casinos on reservations and provided for regulation through the national Indian gaming commission

National indian gaming commission

regulates all the indian casinos

Native American Church

A religious revitalization movement among Native Americans, also known as the Peyote religion

American Indian Religious Freedom act

a 1978 law that directed federal agencies not to interfere with Native Americans religious practices.

Native American graves protection act


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