History of America in the 1960's

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Shirelles
December 1960- will you love me tomorrow?
First time all girl group took #1 spot
Subject- sex and its consequences
Decision of sex now a choice
4 black girls
Beatles
The most prominent image of the teenage girl in the mid 1960's was the victim of Beatlemania
Mass phenomenon at a time of profound loss (JFK)
Beatles acknowledged masculinity and femininity
Gave young girls an outlet for female revolt, sexuality and energy
Challenged the masculinity of Elvis
Represented blurred gender boundaries in their music and appearance
Disney films
Popular in the 1950s
Animated motion pictures that catered to the growing generation of children from the baby boom generation.
Douglas- they reinforce harmful stereotypes about girls, including the notion that women are designed to be objects for men and are either beautiful but vulnerable heroines or powerful but evil villains.
Jaqueline Kennedy
First lady to President John F. Kennedy.
Revered for both her brains and beauty
Represented a new era of American first ladies by dutifully supporting her husband and taking charge of historical preservation of the White House.
Douglas uses Jacqueline Kennedy as an example of the prescribed gender role for women in the 1960s: to be able to do anything a man could do, but with distinctly "feminine" qualities.
Elvis
Perceived as sexual threat by older generation
--> wanted to preserve moral values, order in society
--> Traditionalists saw him as a representation of declining moral and sexual values among youth
Role of television (Ed Sullivan show)
Expressed dissent thru music
Mixing of race - used black rhythm
Gould yelling at media for letting business interests overcome moral judgments
American teenagers hailed the new arrival of rock and roll
Young Americans would use music to express dissent from the core values of mainstream society
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Prohibit paying men and women different salaries for the same jobs, thus coining the phrase "equal pay for equal work."
Both a result and an instigator of the rise of second-wave feminism, where women were concerned with emancipating themselves from their domain in the home.
Feminine Mystique
Published 1963 by feminist author Betty Friedan
Excerpts from book distributed in women's magazines
Friedan's writing quelled the notion that women were biologically destined for housework
Argued that the fight for gender equality was not yet over, sparking reactions that contributed to second-wave feminism.
Miss America Pageant 1968
Women arrived by bus to protest the pageant
Holding up controversial signs and swinging their bras around
Symbolized much of the growing resistance to patriarchal norms at the time, which would come to be challenged by other "bra burning" feminists
Example of the growing numbers of women who participated in protests of the time.
Nora Johnson
Sex and the college girl 1957
Article outlining the existing and changing sexual values of young women
Dual/contradictory role - double standard - good/bad girls
Increase in higher education for women
Complex and confusing rituals surrounding appropriate sexual activity for young women in the 1950's
Discussed the double standard
Shows the seeds of the sexual revolution of the 1960s.
Time Magazine "The Roots of Home"
Cover story about rise of suburbia
Site of middle class affluence
Synonymous with the idea of the American dream
Foreshadows many of the critique of suburbia as a center of vacuous consumerism, superficial community, cultural conformity, and stultifying gender norms that would become even more prominent during the 1960s.
Exclusionary Devices
Restrictive covenants - forbade selling property to anyone other than whites
Federal housing policies (FHA, VA, HOLC)
--> Sustained racially separate housing - built into the system
Low interest rates/mortgages
Allowed whites to move to suburbs, blacks in city
Woman's Strike for Equality
1970 Protest- 50th anniversary of the 19th Amendment
Sponsored by the National Organization for Women
Protest aimed to secure equal opportunity in the workforce as well as issues of abortion, childcare, and political representation for women
Douglas criticizes the patronizing news media coverage of this movement
Gloria Steinem
Feminist activist of the 1970s
Founder of Ms. Magazine
Steinem is perhaps the most famous American feminists of this era
Douglas discusses her achievements for feminism and, more importantly, the way the mainstream media commented almost exclusively on her good looks and attractiveness to men
MEDIA
Sweet Land of Liberty
Published in 2008 by historian Thomas Sugrue
Presents the meticulously researched narrative of the black freedom struggle in the north.
Sugrue focuses his research on the Civil Rights Movement in the northern part of the United States, giving significance to the half of he country that is often forgotten in the story of civil rights.
MLK Jr
Clergyman and activist for the black freedom struggle
Non-violent tactics as a method to achieve civil rights
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Founded in 1942 by George Houser and James Farmer, students of student gospel, united at FOR by AJ Muste
Ties to A. Randolph, where Rustin and Farmer were tutored in labor activism and nonviolent resistance
CORE holistic vision: hoped to live in the reality of a transformed society by embodying the ideal of nonviolence and Christian brotherhood without respect to the distinctions of race
Freedom Rides in the summer of 1947
March on Washington in 1963
CORE incorporated both black and white activists
Attempted to show the violence that undermined and enforced Jim Crow
Not merely to take down Jim Crowe, lived interracially
--> "direct action" protests: sit-ins, swim-ins (eventually brought lawsuit that desegregated pools)
--> before boycotts, protests and sit-ins, would try to convince the owner to desegregate (process as important as product)
--> Testers- strategy to bring legal action, required whites present to testify
--> Strategies influenced Southern counterparts during the 1960s
MEDIA
GHANDI INFLUENCE
Crozer Theological Seminary/ Social Gospel
Where MLK was a student after Moorehouse
Pre-eminent school for social Gospel
Rauschenbusch
--> Criticism of capitalism, challenged fundamentalist Christianity
--> Means as important as ends in achieving social change
Contributed to MLK's philosophy of nonviolent resistance- King liked Gandhi-ism because it combined principals of Social Gospel and Realism
Northern Jim Crow
Not as much de jure segregation, still frustrating for African Americans because rules weren't clear
Segregation in hotels, restaurants, beaches, pools, parks, bars
Beyond public place segregation, African Americans fought for a race neutral economy
Travelers faced risks à The Negro Motorist Green Book
Even where laws prohibited segregation, segregation persevered due to local sentiment and police enforcement
Movie Theater Protests
NAACP lead the way
Protested "Gone with the Wind" and "The Birth of a Nation"
Springfield, Ohio - Antioch Univeristy student protest opens the Liberty Theater
Rise of chains enabled the fight for desegregated cinemas- a chain would take over and endorse national policy
Victories were largely symbolic- as cinemas desegregated, whites would leave to blacks, moved to suburbs and so did cinemas
Consumer Rights
Right to eat, drink, spend money where they pleased
Demanded by blacks in desegregating of accommodations, restaurants, bars etc
Herman Ferguson
NYC teacher who held protests in Jamaica, Queens that grew increasingly militant over time → led to creation of Rochdale Movement in 1963 (bold actions to protest building and construction work discrimination, gained national attention)
o Ferguson joined Malcolm X and his radicalism increased - eventually convicted for a plot to murder civil rights leaders
Charles, Joseph, Richard and Alfonso Ferguson
Black brothers who argued with white restaurant owner who refused to serve them in Newport, RI
Were arrested and two were shot and killed
Black Power Movement
not a coherent movement, but impactful, intense and localized; often viewed as a common critique against postwar modern liberalism; shared characteristics:
--> Anti-moderation and anti-gradualism
--> Insurgencies were populist
--> Internationalist/anti-imperialist sentiment
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909
Aimed to eliminate racial discrimination in the United States through litigation
Most famous- Brown vs. Board of Education reversing the notion of "separate but equal"
Armed with data
NAACP "crisis"
NAACP manual how to resist discrimination
Key was avoiding violence and insisting rights laws were enforced
Malcolm X and Islam
Integration vs. self-reliance - black nationalism/pride
The ballot or the bullet speech 1964
Separatist vs. integrationist
Up to them to raise moral fiber of community
Keeping money in the community
Advocated right to armed self-defense - as opposed to non-violent protests
Not anti-white, but anti exploitation
Black urban north
Battling discrimination that isn't as explicit as Jim Crow in the south
Used language to really speak to his audience

Eventually distanced himself from the Nation of Islam and started the Organization for Afro-American Unity in 1964
Assassinated on February 21, 1965 → became a mythic and a martyr
Many interpretations exist of his death (so single Malcolm X movement existed), it is unlikely that he would've accepted integration at any point
Beach Protests
Most contested because of pervasive fear of interracial sex
Whites clung to myths about black disease, dirt contamination
Detroit riot of 1943 was sparked by rumors of interracial sexual attacks on Belle Isle
Access to recreational facilities took on meaning to blacks as access to consumer culture
Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM)
Created in Cleveland in 1961
Founders- Maxwell Stanford, Donald Freeman and Wanda Marshall relied heavily on black radical and revolutionary Robert F. Williams Jr.
Williams was an advocate of black self-defense and was anti-MLK
Expelled from the NAACP and a hero to young blacks and intellectuals
Published a manifesto called Negroes with Guns, a newsletter called Crusader, and also launched his own radio show; believed that blacks were a "colonized people"

RAM was radical, leftward and anti-integration
Argued that blacks were exploited
Placed an emphasis on black culture and communalism
Ttargeted police and black moderates - appealed most to disaffected middle class blacks

Black Guards: RAM's paramilitary cadre, youth guerilla force
Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR)
Founded by radical Christian activists James Farmer, Bayard Rustin, and George Houser
FOR brought together religious and peace activists to help in the pursuit of civil rights
Embraced non-violent activism and laid much of the groundwork for the formation of CORE.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955
Rosa Parks was asked to give up her seat on a racially segregated bus
Number of civil rights activists organized for African Americans to boycott the public transit system
The event is significant because it caused a noticeable financial deficit in Montgomery's transportation system, and ultimately led to the Supreme Court ruling in Browder v. Gayle that segregation of busses was unconstitutional.
Hillburn School Boycott
6 week boycott
Orchestrated by the NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall
Protested the segregation of schools in Hillburn, New York
This boycott is significant for encouraging a string of similar school boycotts and represented the grassroots organizing that ultimately reshaped public policy.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954
Landmark Supreme Court case that struck down "separate but equal"
The case is significant for legally eliminating racial segregation in public schools.
Even though the mandate itself did not change the racist climate in United States classrooms, it gave civil rights organizations a legal foundation on which to stand.
1954, argued by Thurgood Marshall (NAACP)
"separate education facilities are inherently unequal"- broad phrasing
De facto segregation remained due to housing patterns
Levittown
A suburb outside of Philadelphia, carefully designed by master builder William Levitt to become the quintessential symbol of suburbia.
"Most perfectly planned community in America"
Levitt overtly excluded blacks from living in these communities, forcing African Americans to live in overpriced housing with subpar conditions.
Segregation challenged by trying to move in middle class black family, met with resistance (challenged by NAACP and American Friends Society (Quakers))
--> Argued Levitt used federal aid for unconstitutional purpose- lost case that stated that the government was not the builder
--> Found seller who would be open to selling to blacks, interviewed "pioneers"- needed to be just like whites except skin color- chose William and Daisy Myers (moved in 1957)
Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
1934 by President Roosevelt
FHA guaranteed housing mortgages from default

This was significant in skyrocketing the number of homeowners in America, making homeownership the "emblem of American citizenship."
-->privilege applied to whites and not to blacks.
Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC)
1963
Provided low-interest loans to homeowners at risk of foreclosure
To assist lenders, the HOLC also prepared "neighborhood security maps" that effectively segregated blacks to "risky" neighborhoods where they were ineligible for the FHA-backed loans.
Shelley v. Kramer
Supreme Court case that reconsidered racial restrictions in 1948
In spite of the official ruling in the case, the FHA continued to encourage lenders to favor racially restricted developments.
Key legal strategy was defining housing segregation as output of state action
National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing (NCDH)
Founded by Charles Abrams in 1950
Popularized social scientific studies to justify racially indiscriminate housing
NCDH was a leader in opening housing to blacks around the country.
Open housing movement fused liberal religion and social science- segregation as violation of gospel of live and brotherhood
Lobbying group created in 1950, became nationally important during JFK's term
Had obtained from him during the 1960 campaign the pledge to "eliminate discrimination with the stroke of a pen" in housing
Developed the letter-writing campaign which flooded the White House with pens
Obtained an executive order to end segregation, but it remained ineffective.
Concord Park
Housing development in New York
Opened in 1954
Designed by Morris Milgram
Designed as a racially mixed development
Opened up suburban housing options to African Americans
However, whites' reluctance to integrate in Concord Park left the development predominantly black.
Hard to find funding and whites to move in
--> Actuarial science that blacks lowered housing prices
Solution- "controlled occupancy pattern" - controversial, set quotas for blacks and whites
· Generated little overt resistance
· A business venture with a social goal
"The Little Rock of Housing"
Grassroots Approach
"bottom-up"
led from local level, mostly by moms and families
propelled civil rights movement
ex. Brooks School protest, Lincoln School
in education, enlisted help of litigators to change laws (involved "top down" also)
WEB DuBois
Skeptic about educational integration
Feared racism would prevent blacks from getting a "proper education" in white institutions
Not an advocate of status quo- Jim Crowe schools were undemocratic and unfair
Primary goal was first rate education
Black teachers also supported separate schools, were afraid of losing their jobs
Double Victory
Campaign during WWII in which blacks looked to secure a victory abroad against Hitler and a victory on the home front against racism
"Little Rock of the North"
New Rochelle- battle over Lincoln School (black school) and Ward School
Local protest headed by women
NAACP intervened, tried sit ins at Ward School
Weapon was untested Brown v. Board of Ed case
Unsuccessful in closing Lincoln School, but brought international attention to the issue
-->Paul Zuber filed a lawsuit against New Rochelle- won the case on grounds the schools were unequal (Taylor v. Board of Education)
Caused NAACP to reorganize legal strategy
--> Decision of the case though held a strict reading of Brown- left room for permissible de facto segregation, had to prove intentional
Open Housing Movement
Deployed mass media and PR tactics to rally support
Brought together mix of middle class blacks and religious whites
Mainstream religious denominations came to support staunchly
Milgram's movement
Levittown + the Myers
"Statement of Conscience" - pledge cards (free way to declare liberalism, while social fear of blacks persisted)
Persuading whites to stay in mixed neighborhoods proved difficult
Obstacles: zoning, racially restrictive covenants, real estate agents, fear of declining house prices
New Negro
Many who joined Civil Rights Movement would succeed, but successes proved them wrong
When met with opposition, "Negroes" respond with more determination
--> Montgomery Bus Boycotts- solidarity (42,000 refused to ride busses, people walk up to 14 miles a day)
--> Leaders have endured jail time, indictment
--> Church is becoming more militant - 24 ministers arrested, raised money, sites of car pools
--> African American shops thriving because more convenient without busses- economics
--> Non-violent resistance as a tactic- "justice without violence"
Martin Luther King- 1956
Urban League
Oldest civil rights organization of the US (1910)
Released reports on the state of "black America" based on the analysis of decennial censuses figures, which were used by activists of the CRM
Aim of solving social problems by gathering datas.
Under criticism for eschewing political visibility and activist actions in the beginning of the 1960s, it became a full actor of the Civil Rights Movement, pushing for an ending to socioeconomic discrimination and providing job training programs under the impulse of its leader Whitney Young Jr.
Whitney Young Jr
Took the lead of the National Urban League in 1961
Social worker focusing on employment discrimination and training for black workers
Participated in activist demonstrations of the CRM
Saw the limits of the gradualist approach of the Urban League in challenging segregation
Set out a more activist course in the organization.
President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity (PCEEO)
Created by an executive order issued by JFK on March 6, 1961
Charged to eliminate discrimination in government and federally contracted employment
First steps of the JFK administration towards extension of civil rights
Allowed the NAACP to file hundreds of complaints, shifted the burden of proof of discrimination from individuals to employers.
US Commission on Civil Rights
Independent body created as part of the 1957 Civil Rights Act
Charged to collect information on denials of equal Protection by the law and to evaluate federal civil rights policies
Hearings and investigations led in 1960 gave material to a report depicting widespread persistence of segregation in the whole country.
Criticized as a "do nothing" agency, no budget, no power
Found extreme segregation in both N and S cities, found separate and unequal education as serious in N as in S
Audley "Queen Mother" Moore
Radical activist with a very eclectic career
Main advocate of making the federal government paying reparations to African-Americans for their long-lasting oppression
Created the Reparations Committee for United States Slaves Descendants.
Manpower Development and Training Act
1962
Developed widespread job-training support with bipartisan support
One million trained workers
Mainly black and displaced by new technologies
Between 1962 and 1968 thanks to funds granted to training agencies
Negro Revolt of 1963
Widespread grassroots rebellion of the segregated African-American population
Expressed through a multiplication of demonstrations and protests throughout the US
VIOLENT (especially in the North, in Harlem, Chicago, Detroit and Philadelphia)
Increasing role of the most revolutionary elements of the CRM, challenging the leadership of traditional organizations and leaders as the NAACP or MLK.
Cecil B. Moore
Criminal defense lawyer focusing on victims from police brutality
Ran as a radical insurgent candidate for Philadelphia NAACP chapter
Elected January 1963
Developed the NAACP recruiting
Led direct action and civil disobedience campaigns
Advocated self determination against integration
Developed more and more provocative strategies to challenge segregation
-->led to violent protest of the negro revolt in Philadelphia.
Reverend Albert Cleage Jr.
Detroit leftist radical activist
Hostile to integration as a mean to achieve black peoples' emancipation
Promoting self determination and self defense
Supported the multiracial Walf to Freedom March held in Detroit on June 23, 1963, but he had a more radical view of it than its main promoters MLK and the NAACP did.
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
Organized on August 28, 1963
Gathered between 200,000 and 300,000 CRM supporters
Leaders from several organizations and trade unions fighting for CR and labor equality
Climax of the CRM
MLK's speech "I have a dream"
Helped to pass the 1964 CRA and the 1965 Voting Act
1960 Census
40% blacks live outside the South, first time ever
Blacks living in cities
10.2% Blacks unemployed (4.9% whites)
The Lost-Found Nation of Islam
Founded in Detroit in 1920 by WD Fard (aka Wali Farad aka Fard Muhammad)
Succeeded by Elijah Muhammad
Showcased terminal corruption of white America
Philosophy of self-help, military-like lifestyle of discipline to combat the "evils" of white America, popular with ex-convicts
Philosophy: blacks are their own nation and through the institution of slavery, the whites took control of their lives.

Malcolm X preached that blacks were equal (or even superior) to whites but were under the oppression of white supremacy
Kennedy Administration
Dem Party had radical, leftist CR platform
Endorsed CR while on the campaign trail but hesitant to take real action, believed in gradualism but took action when provoked
Believed in application of scholarship
"New Frontier" - channeling new resources into social service organizations in northern cities
·Executive Order 10925 - President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity (PCEEO), eliminate discrimination in government and federally contracted employment
1963 - Year of the Negro Revolt, JFK was forced to be more active in CR legislation especially due to USA's image for the Cold War
Father Theodore Hesburgh
Worked at Notre Dame, believed academic leaders should deal with problems of society
Public face of the Commission on Civil Rights, becomes one of the most prominent white CR activists
Michael Harrington
Joined Manhattan NAACP as a writer, supported MLK
In 1962, published bestseller "The Other America"
About the economic restructuring postwar that transformed cities
Emphasized a "culture of poverty" for those who were "left behind" by agrabusiness, automated machines, loss of unskilled factory jobs
Called for policies to address joblessness, substandard housing, and poor education as the roots of poverty
Huge effect on Kennedy advisors, and black democratic left and allies
LBJ convinced businesses that helping the poor would increase everyone's wealth
Birmingham 1963
Black nonviolent protesters are attacked by police officers, dogs, fire hoses (authorized by Bull Connor)
Rallies in the North to show solidarity with the South
Triumph of nonviolence against brutality but also failure of nonviolence because brutality necessitated self-defense
Results in riots in the North for self-defense, self-determination, militancy (nationalism)
Walk to Freedom March (Detroit)
June 23, 1963 125,000-200,000 protests march in Detroit
Led by MLK and Walter P. Reuther (white head of United Automobile Workers), but few white supporters marched
King celebrated new militancy, called for voting rights, abolition of Jim Crow, problems of inequality in jobs, housing, schools
Rev. Albert Cleage, Jr saw march as a way to create black solidarity
DRESS REHEARSAL for March on Washington
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Organization designed to coordinate the campaign against segregation
Students dominated the membership
Ella Baker- veteran civil rights activist
Urged the students of SNCC to adopt a decentralized and democratic structure to avoid over-dependence on a single leader
Emphasized participatory democracy and grassroots organizing
Reverend James Lawson- supporter of nonviolent direct action tactics, who pioneered sit ins in Nashville
His influence is reflected in the SNCC's statement of purpose
SNCC Statement of Purpose
Adopted in Raleigh, North Carolina on April 17, 1960
Stated that nonviolence was their foundation for their action
Believed that through nonviolence, courage displaces fear
"I Have a Dream Speech"
Focused on the efforts to create a land of racial equality and equal opportunity
Delivered at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC to an interracial crowd
More radical violent forces would take action if blacks rights were not quickly addressed
Delivered on the anniversary of the signing of the declaration of independence- MLK jr. claimed that now one hundred years later African Americans are still not free
- Constantly repeated phrase "I have a dream"
The Ballot or the Bullet 1964
Critiqued the failure of the US government to address African American problems
-Malcolm X was a Muslim, but stated in his speech that he did not intend to discuss religion or other issues that divide African Americans
--> Discussed common experiences of African Americans of all faiths
1964 and it was an election year- said that Democrats claimed to be supporting the civil rights movement, but they hadn't taken real action to pass a bill
--> Democrats were not truly supportive of African Americans
--> Emphasized how powerful the African American's vote could be
Ultimately assassinated by followers of Muhammad in 1965
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
Signed by Johnson in Johnson City, a town in the Hill Country of central Texas
Massive federal aid program for education designed to allow every student to get as much schooling as he could take
Bill encountered only slight opposition in the house
Framed not only as a schools program, but as an antipoverty program
Statistics showed that the more education an American possessed, the greater his or her income
The heart of the bill allocated a billion dollars for "compensatory education," programs specially dedicated to improve education for poor children
Classical Liberalism
Nineteenth-century liberalism
Embraced a largely negative view of freedom
Freedom meant only absence of restraint, the ability to do as one pleased without regulation
Classical liberals saw the government as the biggest threat to freedom and believed that the government that governs the least governs the best
Modern Liberals
Recognized that real freedom required the active protection of an interventionist government
Called for a larger role for the government, ensuring that the economy and society operated freely and fairly
- Included freedoms such as freedom from want and freedom for fear--freedoms that only a big government could ensure
New Deal
Passed by Roosevelt to combat the depression
Offered direct aid to the American people
Acknowledges and empowered a number of social and economic groups
DR expanded and reorganized the executive branch of government
Transformed the American party system
National Youth Administration (NYA)
Established by FDR
Effort to put young people to work or help them to finish school
Johnson got the job as Texas state director of the NYA
Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee
Headed by Johnson
Directed campaign funds and political support to Democratic candidates facing tough congressional races
Keynesian Economics
New liberal tool
Government could use fiscal policy, its powers of taxing and spending, to stimulate the economy
Policymakers learned that they could heat up a slowing economy and prevent future depressions
Cold War Liberalism
Focused on Keynesian economics
New view of the political process and a new vision of democracy
Political theorists believed that when people mobilized and involved themselves in politics, they tended to act on irrational principles
--> rise of Nazi Germany proved that mass participation did not mean increased democracy
Championed pluralist politics
-->pluralists believed that the interplay of groups ensured that representative democracy would flourish
Focused energy on the struggle against international communism
Joseph Mccarthy
Senator
Accused liberals of treason, assassinated their characters, deprived them of their livelihoods, and ruined their lives
McCarthy attacked prominent conservative senators and accused the US Army of harboring traitors in 1954
Johnson despised McCarthy- organized a committee to investigate McCarthy- the committee consisted of conservatives so that no one could question his findings
McCarthy was censured and never recovered
Sputnik I
1957- the Soviet Union shocked the world by launching Sputnik I, a small, unmanned satellite into earth orbit
This alarmed the American public- worried that Soviets had moved ahead in the arms race
Many criticized the Republican administration for falling behind the communists
Led Johnson to produce two landmark pieces of legislation in 1958:
- Creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
- National Defense Education Act (NDEA), which reinvigorated scientific and technical education
Southern Manifesto
Southern members of Congress issued the Southern Manifesto, promising to resist the Brown decision
Johnson was one of only three southern senators who refused to sign it
Filibuster
Senate rules allowed unlimited debate, so that a determined minority could prevent action on any bill by simply talking and talking around the clock
Conservative southerners mastered this technique (the filibuster)
Conservatives would assign teams of senators to cover shifts, reading from encyclopedias, relieving each other after a few hours
Shutting off a filibuster (cloture), required the approval of 2/3 of the senate- which was a number that was impossible to attain
South successfully buried every civil rights bill for eighty years
OYYY
Civil Rights Act of 1957
This was a weak but very important law
- The law was largely symbolic
- Passed by Kennedy
- Very watered down so that it would not be filibustered by the conservatives
JFK Assassination
JFK journeyed to Dallas to meet with state Democratic leaders and to solidify his support from Texas
As his motorcade passed through the city, Kennedy was gunned down in his open car
Federal judge administered the oath of office to LBJ and swore him in as the 36th president of the United States
Civil Rights Bill of 1964
Bill encountered only slight opposition in the house
Prohibited discrimination based on race, color, or creed
In senate, LBJ knew that there would be a filibuster and he would need to invoke cloture- which required the support of 2/3 of the senate
The senate had never invoked cloture and broken a southern filibuster on civil rights
Administration went all out to please Senator Everett Dirksen of Illinois- who had some sympathy for the civil rights movement
Dirksen threw the republicans behind cloture and paved the way for the Civil Rights Act of 1964

The law eliminated segregation in southern public accommodations and dismantled Jim Crow
Medicare
The number of elderly Americans more than doubled and their medical costs exploded
Private insurance companies opposed the program as did the American Medical Associated (AMA), a lobby for doctors who thought that government regulation might limit their earnings and interfere with their practices
Immigration Act of 1965
Eliminated the quota system that became law in the 1920s
The national origins system had severely limited immigration from eastern and southern Europe and banned almost all arrivals from Asia
Johnson outlawed ethnic quotas and opened the doors to a steady stream of arrivals from Asia
Wilderness Act of 1964
Johnson set aside more than 9 million acres of public land, without human structures or roads of any kind
He understood the need to protect natural resources and the symbolic importance of open spaces
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
In Mississippi, party regulars selected a white delegation to represent the state on the convention floor
In response, local civil rights activists held their own counter elections, open to all Mississippians regardless of race
The MFDP sent its own delegation to Atlantic City and demanded that the convention seat it as the authentic representatives of the citizens of Mississippi
Johnson offered the MFDP two seats in the convection--Mississippi civil rights workers still risked their lives in the struggle and rejected the plan
Freedom Summer
Protests in Mississippi 1964
Many civil rights activists travelled to Mississippi to take part in a "Freedom Summer" of protests
They decided that it was foolish to rely on government action and determined to empower themselves and transform their own communities
They began forming a "new left"
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Intended to overcome the systematic and ingenious discrimination that had denied the ballot to black southerners
Johnson gained the support of millions of African American voters but cost his party the votes of white southerners
Daniel Patrick Moynihan
Former Harvard professor, who prepared a report for circulation within the administration titled The Negro Family: The Case for National Action
The Moynihan report found the roots of black poverty and blamed the disintegration of the black family on the profound legacy of slavery
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Agency established to administer the civil rights act
Established in 1965
Started out that it could not move proactively to ensure compliance with the laws; it could only respond to complaints filed by individuals
Late 1960s, the EEOC changed its tactics; it started to advise organizations to recruit underrepresented minorities, to initiate affirmative action programs and cited for violations of the civil rights laws
LBJ Speech at UMichigan
- Claimed that Great Society is a place where every child can find knowledge and enrich his mind
- We will begin to build the Great Society in three places: our cities, our countryside, and our classrooms
Cities
-->we must rebuild the entire urban United States, urban population is growing. It is the task of their generation to make the American city a place where future generations will come live.
Countryside
--> beauty of American countryside is in danger. Air is polluted, parks are overcrowded, forests are disappearing.
Classrooms of America
--> this is where their children's lives are shaped. What will happen when we cannot educate today's youth? In much of the US classrooms are overcrowded and curricula are outdated.
- These are the central three issues of the Great Society--it is the generation of students at the University of Michigan who has been appointed to deal with these problems
- Johnson promised to complete the liberal agenda of Roosevelt, Truman, and Kennedy and to guarantee liberty for all
Ronald Reagan
- During 1964 presidential campaign, Reagan made an address in support of Republican candidate Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona
- This speech is what launched Reagan's career in politics
- He attacked Johnson and his fellow liberals
- Claimed that there is not a left and a right but rather an up and a down
--> up is towards maximum individual freedom consistent with law
--> down is towards totalitarianism
- Claimed that liberalism is a method of meeting the needs of individuals through the power of the centralized government
- Government already has taken control of health, housing, farming, industry, commerce, education etc. and federal welfare spending is ten times greater than it was during the depression
- Conservatives generally viewed the Great Society as big government run amok-too much intervention and too much waste
Joseph A. Califano Jr.
- LBJ's principal adviser on domestic affairs
- Gave a speech discussing the legacy of the Great Society
- Under the Great Society, a majority of the people could get their fair share of American prosperity
- Accomplishments of the Great Society- health, civil right and consumer protection
- During Great Society, percentage of Americans living under the poverty line dropped from 22% to 13%
- There were some shortcomings to the Great Society- may have legislated too much, seemed to have a law for everything
- 20th anniversary of the Great Society- Great Society is still alive and well
George Gilder
- Criticized the programs of the Great Society and the liberal ideas associated with it
- Conservative
- Wrote the book Wealth and Poverty
- Rise of welfare programs has displaced other modes of support for the poor--welfare no longer comes from private charity
Anti-statism
Goldwater's conservative view on the role government should play in society
Federal govt not intervene on social or economic affairs of the state
"Hands off" and free market idea emphasizes importance of limiting the power of government in order to avoid the accumulation of too much power in a single authority
Barry Goldwater
Book written in '60 calling for conservative revolution
Anti-big gov
Led to conservative rise
Represented new right
Embodied conservative ideals - small gov, strict adherence to powers laid out in the constitution, deregulation, states' rights, hard-line offensive anti-communist approach, abroad and at home
His 64 presidential nomination - and won 5 southern states, which had previously been democratic
Calling for moral changes, transformation of family and religious/ Christian values - moral rot
Goldwater Conservatism
Involves restricting federal power not explicitly given in the Constitution, which means that all other powers are reserved for the states.
The Constitution was a method of restricting the powers of those in charge from exploiting their positions and leading to absolutism.
Embodies the free market ideology, including opposing the monopoly that unions hold. He is not against unions overall, but believes that they should be voluntary.
States' Rights
The idea that the majority of power should be held by the States, not the federal government
Key belief to Goldwater's philosophy- sees it as mandated by the 10th Amendment of the Constitution
Republicans and Democrats have undermined States' Rights with the continued funding of "grants-in-aid" to the States in a number of areas in which the Constitution recognizes the jurisdiction of the States
--> calls it mixture of blackmail and bribery
New Right
Emerged 1950s and rose to prominence in the early 1960s
Portrayed itself as the anti-establishment wing of the Republican Party
Disenchanted with the east-coast elite, which it felt to be dominating the party and which it believed had lost touch with middle America
No interest in maintaining the status quo
Advocated a radical restructuring of the economy, politics and morality
Return to Christian morals, which emphasize individual and family values
Anti-statist, except in the realm of policing and defense
Laissez faire
John Birch Society, the work of William F Buckley, the student organization Young Americans for Freedom and the Republican program Operation Dixie
Believed that the only way to bring about morality and justice was through force
Rockefeller Republicans
Mainstream faction of the Republican party
Named after the NY governor Nelson Rockefeller- opposed Goldwater for the presidential nomination in 1964
Characteristics:
Commitment to pursuing the Cold War (hawkish on foreign policy issues in general)
Moderate / pro-civil rights platform, supported in its broad contours the welfare state that had been created by the New Deal (and the notion of government and the state as a force of good in certain arenas like affordable housing)
Pro-regulation on issues like the environment
Staunchly pro-business (the Rockefeller Wing disproportionately came from the ranks of the Northeast financial and industrial establishments)
Billy Graham (or "The National Purpose")
Who: a prominent and extremely popular evangelists who leveraged mass media
When: "The National Purpose" is from 1960
What: The magazine column was included in the Congressional Record. The column analyzed his views of America's moral state. He "diagnosed" the current American state as plagued by a "spiritual cancer"
Ex.
Lack of patriotism
Increased Status consciousness ("The Joneses")
Too much Leisure time
Need to reaffirm commitment to God
Significance: Reflects the social and political views of the new right whose values were traditional and faith-based. A general criticism of the "mass produced man" and desire to bring back the says of individualism.
Sharon Statement
Young Americans for Freedom (YAF)
William F. Buckley-Conservative Ideologue
Student group
Mobilized in support of new right on college campuses
Valued individual freedom and commitment to a free market economy
Early example of grassroots organization
Uncompromising foreign policy
Drafted at Buckley's estate in Connecticut in September 1960 by YAF
Response to:
rise of federal involvement in individuals' lives, the economy
Threat of Communism
--> Pledged a commitment to economic freedom, individual rights, and protection of U.S. interests against Communism all over the world
A "blueprint" for "modern American conservatism"
Significance:
o Represents the beginning of a conservative youth culture i.e. a crucial opposition to the traditionally liberal youth movements
o The beginning of grassroots organization on campuses for the New Right
Abington vs. Schempp
June 17, 1963
The Supreme Court reaffirmed the decision made in the case Engel v. Vitale from 1962
Decision: compulsory morning prayers in a New York school violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment which forbids any effort to promote or establish a state religion
Justice Potter Stewart was the only one who voted in favor of compulsory prayer in both Abington v. Schempp and in Engle v. Vitale
Provoked outrage from churchgoing Americans and conservative groups
Mr. Justice Clark delivered the verdict
Liberal - demonstration of liberal court ruling
Dixiecrats- saw the decision as a sign of declining religious and moral values, in conjunction with desegregation of schools
Ronald Reagan "A Time for Choosing"
1964
National television address on behalf of Republican candidate Barry Goldwater
Marked the emergence of Reagan as a new voice in politics
"The Speech"
Articulated many of the concerns that would inspire the rise of the New Right
Main points of the speech
--> condemned big government
--> denounced liberal and social economic reforms of the Great Society and the War on Poverty
--> criticized the soft appeasing foreign policy toward the Soviet Union - said he felt it was weakening the nation's security and threatening freedom around the world
--> the government is spending far more than they take in
---> all stepping stones towards socialism
Peace Through Strength- phrase coined by Barry Goldwater meaning there is a price we will not pay and there is a point beyond which our enemies cannot advance
Two years later, Reagan became governor of California
The Soviet Menace
Term used by Goldwater to discuss the Soviet Union
Enemy of the United States
Force would be necessary to defeat it handily
Opposed Containment, the Diplomatic strategy at the time, for complete victory
Believed the alliance system (NATO etc) was ineffective
Saw foreign aidas ineffective, illegal for the federal government to do, and sometimes harmful to US interests
Ineffectiveness of negotiations
Perils of disarmament (to him, it would only weaken US defense)
Robert McNamara
Secretary of defense 1961-1968
--> Favorable kill ratio
--> Means of judging success of war
--> Key architect of American policy of war
--> Was president of ford - technocrat
--> Firmly defended policy of massive military escalation till he resigned from administration in 68
--> Publicly said war going great, privately had doubts starting 65
--> Attributed failure in Vietnam to a lack of intelligence.
Described Gulf of Tonkin as an unprovoked attack by Vietnamese in international waters
-> in reality was not an attack and was in Vietnamese waters
Viet Cong
NLF (National Liberation Front)- fought US and South Vietnamese governments
Political organization and army that fought guerrilla style warfare
Communist regime was led by Ho Chi Minh in North Vietnamese and grew more brutal against Diem supporters in the North
Ho Chi Minh Trail
Brought military equipment subsidized by Soviets and China to North Vietnam
North --> South Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia
Construction of this transportation network began in mid-1950s.
Network of footpaths and roads that continued to expand over time
Over 10,000 miles of trails.
Teenage volunteers in Volunteer Youth Corps went to mountain jungles to carve out this trail
--> threatened by disease, bomb strikes and malnutrition.
Ia Drang Battle
November 1965
1st time US forces clashed with major units of Northern troops
One of the largest and most conventional campaigns of the war
Veered away from guerrilla warfare, instead, North sustained contact for days at a time

Westmoreland claimed battle was a victory and that US could win the war by fighting a war of attrition led to the notion that killing large numbers of enemy forces will result in victory (military solution to war)
Taught the North Vietnamese that Americans should be fought in quick-striking close combat.
Selective Service System
1948
1st peacetime draft in US history
Intended to promote "national interest" by "channeling" some people into the military and others into higher education
Majority avoided military by many avenues the draft system provided.
Channeled mostly working class men to Vietnam and encouraged privileged men to continue their education.
In working class communities, military service was considered to be an unavoidable duty.
Tet Offensive
Vietnamese holiday (lunar new year)
Tet 1789, Vietnamese led a surprise attack against the Chinese
On January 31, 1968, over 80,000 Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops launched a surprise attack on hundreds of targets across South Vietnam.
--> Wanted to counter escalating American involvement.
Many South Vietnamese civilians were killed.
US and ARVN led a counter-offensive resulting in almost 60,000 causalities among the Communist forces.
Led LBJ to bow out of 1968 presidential election and policy makers to try to deescalate the war.
My Lai Massacre
On March 16, 1968 US infantrymen killed 500 Vietnamese civilians in My Lai.
'Leisurely' slaughter that lasted several hours, which they later summed up as a successful firefight.
Army covered it up for a year and a half.
Media played no part in uncovering it—a vet came home and recounted it that led to the investigation and the imprisonment of the My Lai platoon leader.
65% of Americans claimed they were not upset by it but led to turning point in American attitude towards war- maybe it was unjust and immoral.
Massacre was an outgrowth of military strategy to "search and destroy" and to measure success of the war by number of dead bodies.
Evidence that at least 50 American officers knew about the massacre and supported the cover-up.
SDS
Students for a democratic society
Anti-war movement
Todd Gitlin
Thought they were much more successful than they were
Kent State
Anti-war protest, national guard opened fire and killed 4 students
Government opposition to the anti-war movement
May 4th 1970 Kent State University Kent Ohio
Gulf of Tonkin
August 2, 1964 war brought into public sphere
Navy raid in Gulf of Tonkin against North Vietnamese coastal instillation
2 ships deployed- US Maddox and Turner Joy
Boats attacked
2 Vietnamese boats sunk, third majorly damaged
Vietnamese claimed that US went against treaties by coming into their waters
2 days later the ships moved closer to the N Vietnamese coast
Engaged in covert operations AND making a statement
Radar on Maddox picked up signal of ships and torpedoes coming towards the ship
--> was a storm so radar was messed up
--> US still launched an attack
--> justification for going to congress to escalate war
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Confessions to the presidence
Gave president power to have a war without a name
BUT Article 1 section 8 still gives congress the power to declare war
Instead gave president paower to declare a defector war
President approval ratings raised 30% overnight
--> officials continued to lie to congress and the public about the Gulf of Tonkin
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
African American sprinters at the 1968 olympics
Won gold and bronze medals
Smith set new world record
Raised their hands in the black power salute and wore no shoes to symbolize black poverty on the podium while the US national anthem was playing
Smith wore a black scarf for racial pride
Carlos wore bead in honor of those who died in the Atlantic Slave Trade and from lynching
Pre planned
Criticized: Olympics are time of international unity not time to show off country's internal politics, undermining nation's accomplishments when they should have been celebrating
Expelled from competition and banned form competing in the Olympics on the US team
Sought to call attention to the struggles of blacks in America at the expense of national honor
Could be seen as form of black separatism as seen in "What We Want, What We Believe" 1966 manifesto of the Black Panther Party
High School Class of '64/College Class of '65
The year of students who best exemplify radical change in lives of young people in the 60s
Children of the baby boom:
First generation to have their lives centered around advertisement, children's toys, consumer goods, TV, movies, etc
High school experience shaped by CRM
Teen rebels idealized: idea of escape, being a "rebel without a cause"
By college experimenting with drugs, joining SDS, being more engaged int eh world
Fear of Vietnam throughout college experience
Challenged authority, liberalism, status quo
Discovering poverty
Robert F Kennedy
JFK's younger brother
Democratic Politician
1961-1964 US Attorney General under LBJ
Split over Vietnam War (RFK opposed)
1964 resigned in order to run for the US Senate --> became NY senator
1968 ran for president
After winning primary in CA assassinated (3rd major assassination of time JFK MLK RFK)
Opposed South African apartheid
Went to Native American reservation- justice for them

Spoke passionately about achieving interracial unity and peace
Middle of giving speech when he received news that MLK had been famously encouraged Americans to stand together after the assassination and not allow the tragedy to further polarize different races
Redstocking Manifesto
Feminist group founded by Shulamith Firestone and Ellen Willis
"radical feminists" - not well accepted
Demanded TOTAL equality
Disagreed with NOW and stereotypical bra burning women

Supported the ERA
Brought forth new views on gender equality
Ruth Miller
Testified to the Senate about her opposition to the ERA
Worried would have negative impact on women in the workplace
Criticized upper middle class women for not considering the impact ERA would have on working class women --> jobs rely on state regulations that would no longer be constitutional if ERA passed
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Largest organization of feminist activists in US- more than 500,000 members
Found 1966
NOW's goal has been "to take action" to bring about equality for all women
Aimed to eradicate gender bias in the workforce and create employment opportunities for women
Activists who drafted Bill of Rights in 1967 for NOW worked with unionizers in an attempt to enforce principles put forth by Title VII (eliminating gender discrimination in employment)
Liberal but strictly reformist
Legislative work
Reduce taxes on expenses for child-care for working parents as well as passing the Equal Rights Amendment
The Pill
Griswold vs. Connecticut
Women had control over their bodies
Court decision made it about the privacy of the individual (later lead to Roe v Wade)
Conflict of morality- many thought it would lead to promiscuity and lack of sexual restraint
Fewer women with children born from wedlock --> increase marriage market
1960 became widely available
Separated sexual intercourse from procreation
Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM)
First gathered in 1961
Lead by Maxwell Stanford, Donald Freeman, Wanda Marshall, and Robert Williams
Bridged CRM and revolutionary internationalism
"anti-MLK"
Hero to militant northern blacks and black radical intellectuals
Significant because it brought credibility to RAM within black radical circles
Inspired by Third World anti colonialism
Students for Democratic Society
Organization high point for student radicalism in US with legacy on future student movements
1960-late 60s
Participatory democracy
Direct action
Radicalism
Student Power
Grassroots organization
Straight, white males
Origins: Developed from Student League for Industrial Democracy (Youth branch of LID (League for Industrial Democracy); however, decided to break off from LID early in 1960 because LID's labor message was too narrow and labor oriented, and did not accurately reflect the student activist mood on college campuses
First meeting 1960 UMichigan
"Port Huron Statement" adopted at first convention in 1962
Close ties to New Left, anti-war movement, counterculture
Famous for: critique of American politics, domestic values, foreign policy
Key figures: Alan Haber first president, Tom Hayden first secretary who wrote the Port Huron statement
Goals:
Took up C. Wright Mills' challenge of dismissing "unrealistic Marxism" (belief that dispossessed working class would one day revolt against brutal exploitation of capitalism and usher in Socialism)
Prided themselves on being a vanguard of intellectuals who were agents of progressive social change who weren't relying capitalism's demise
Took up ideas of Civil Rights Movement, mainly participatory democracy and grassroots organizing
Port Huron Statement
Written by Tom Hayden in 1962 in Ann Arbor, Michigan at the Port Huron convention
Manifesto of SDS
Themes:
Rejection of idea of leading complacent lives - encouraging youth to take part in participatory democracy
Criticized US govt for failing to achieve international peace
Criticized Cold War foreign policy, threat of nuclear war, arms race
Criticized domestic issues: racial, economic, big businesses, trade unions, political parties
Broad uniform struggle at the same time
Controversial: did not denounce communism, said anti communism is obstruction of democracy
Suggestions:
Reshape political parties
Stronger power for individuals through lobbies
More substantial involvement by workers in business management
Enlarged public sector with increased government welfare

NONVIOLENT CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE
Participatory Democracy
Idea of democracy as activity
--> all americans need to take part in democracy
"refusal to compromise" --> essential doctrines of counterculture groups
Arnold Kaufman - Michigan professor and follower of John Dewey
Big C Communism vs small c communism
Big C - Soviet Bloc and official Communist Party USA of Gus Hall, deplorable
Small c- larger political tradition that was founded by Lenin and Bolsheviks
Richard Nixon
Elected in 1968
Shifted the power in American politics and the term of debate in American culture
Hybrid politician --> both liberal and conservative

Liberal- doubled budgets of NEA and NEH, proposed guaranteed income for all Americans (Family Assistance Plan but didn't pass), environmental protection legislation, created Occupational Health and Safety Administration

Conservative: intervened on behalf of Southern school districts to curtail busing desegregation, appointed conservative justices to the Supreme Court, dismantled Office of Economic Opportunity (LBJ War on Poverty), business over environment

Intended to create new majority coalition in US

Silent majority strategy
drew dixie yellow dog democrats and prosperous new migrants into south into the republican party
brought blue collar northerners who were concerned about social issues "conservative revolution"

Conservative- arts
He averted attention from the northeast elite liberal establishment, but redirected the money to go towards more conservative elements such as local art institutions (favoring the heartland over the cultural elite), youth arts program (which was intended to reduce activism), and international tours to promote American values abroad
The Emerging Republican Majority - Kevin Phillips 1969
New locus of power in national politics
Sunbelt conservative leanings
Watergate
Attempt to break into the DNC Headquarters at Watergate Hotel and bug the DNC chairman

June 1971 tapes record Nixon in the oval office ordering a break in at Brookings Institution to get embarassing files of LBJ
Ordered plans to spy on top of DNC officials and punish donors
Cover up began after burglary
Tried to plant a spy in McGovern's secret service detail
Woodward and Bernstein started to follow the money trail - got hotter by 1972/1973
July 1974 House Judiciary Committee agreed and voted articles of impeachment against the president- Nixon resigned before the full House could vote
After the Watergate scandal, Congress passed a series of bills including the War Powers Resolution which limited the power of the president and increased that of Congress

CREEP and the lumbers
Commitee to Reelect the President
Swann vs Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971)
Unanimous ruling from Supreme Court
Preservation of neighborhood schools no longer justify racial imbalance
authorized drastic measures to maximize desegregation - BUSING
1973 court appealed to doctrine outside the south in Keyes v Denver School District #1
1974 ruling in Milliken v Bradley however established limits for forced busing
Struck down lower courts plan to bus students- argument that outlying communities should not be responsible for cities
--> white flight
Chicano Rights Movement
Advanced anti assimilationist, cultural nationalist agenda
1972 Rodolfo Acuna "Occupied American: The Chicano Struggle Toward Liberation"
One of the earliest studies of Mexican Americans
Colonization and occupation
Cesar Chavez and Corky Gonzales- two of the best known Mexican American leaders - revealed basic drive towards cultural nationalism
By the 1970's, Mexican American experience was mostly urban and Chicano nationalism flourished in cities
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
Allan Paul Bakke 1973 sued UC Davis when he was not accepted into medical school because 16% of class reserved for minority students
Sued against affirmative action
Swing vote in favor of Bakke said institutions could not exclude individuals solely on the basis of race, but race and ethnicity could be considered in a broader assessment of admission qualifications
Inadvertently, Bakke encouraged the triumph of diversity—universities increased affirmative action
Disco
Dance clubs
Outlet for disenfranchised groups
As pop music (especially rock and roll) became increasingly white, male, and macho, the alternative cultural streams fed the disco phenomenon—black pride, female sexual assertion, gay liberation
Just like Woodstock in that it gathered community
Disco was HATED by many
Jimmy Carter
Minister moralist
Southern democrat (from Georgia)
The economy was very bad during Carter's term --> energy crises
The Feminine Mystique
Betty Friedan
1964
Bestselling paperback book in country
Trashed "biology as destiny", Freud, penis envy
1957 Friedan began to interview Smith College classmates
Critique of female domesticity and suburban life in post WWII America- unfulfilled
emphasis on the role of women in the home, women serving husband and family, became the core of American culture; however, it is problematic.
Enumerated the emptiness, resentment, and self-doubt of many housewives' lives
Friedan reminded women of the unfinished work of the women's movement and urged her sisters to stop being doormats and to fight for equality
Friedan notes that women are desirous of something greater than merely upholding the cult of domesticity, referring to this unease as the "problem that has no name.
Bewitched
Successful show because novelty, special effects, and female lead
Samantha- happy, respectable suburban housewife who exerted power beyond the kitchen or living room; traditional and modern at the same time
Suggested women more smart, creative, and versatile than men
Sexually suggestive
Often referred to as masculine nickname Sam
Spouse Darrin
I Dream of Jeannie
1965-1970
Male fantasy of a regular guy finds beautiful naive unworldly woman who will do anything for him and call him "master"
Jeannie did not intervene in community affairs
Hyper-feminized: dumb blonde, jealous and posessive, giggled a lot
Jeannie not normal women
Accentuated gender roles
Joan Baez
Pioneer in folk music for women
Legitimized sense of urgency many young people felt about extending social justice throughout america
Debut at Newport Folk Festival in 1959 no makeup, satin dresses, or sexual come ons
Played own guitar
Sang social protest songs
Participated in anti war and civil rights movements
could undermine well-established gender norms; showed that being female and political were not mutually exclusive—challenging norms about femininity was political in and of itself
Miss America Protests
Atlantic City 1968
Symbol of media bias against the feminist movement of the time- suggested protesters sought to get through political flamboyance what they were unable to get through physical attractiveness
lead by Robin Morgan and New York Radical Women
Contrast between Miss America contestants and protesters
After New York Radical Women flooded with new members
Equal Rights Amendment
"Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."
Introduced early '70s
In media "Women vs Women" even through opposers mostly male
Gloria Steinem - pro
Phyllis Schafly - con
Ultimately defeated by Schlafly and the Stop ERA movement
Gloria Steinem
Beautiful single childless career woman in miniskirt
Marriage linked to prostitution
Portrayed in media as sexy and extremely attractive to men
New, liberated young woman
BUT because she was tall, slim, and beautiful she was able to get away with saying thing less attractive women (like Friedan) couldn't BUT stereotyped as the EXCEPTION
Phyllis Schlafly
1973
Stop ERA campaign
Responsible for ERA defeat
Grass roots
Media was most powerful weapon
normal moms vs women's libbers
said she spoke for "typical" american women
gave men permission to oppose the amendment as well
claimed that ERA didnt mean equality for all women but rather increased servitude and vulnerability
Said mothers no longer be able to count on husbands for support for children
women drafted for army
force women to get jobs
legalize gay marriage
no separate bathrooms
Kanawha County, West Virginia
September 1974 battle over grade school textbooks
between prosperous "hillers" and well-to-do "creekers"
during the months after the books were introduced, there were exchanges of gunfire, schoolrooms were dynamited, school buses were shot at, cars and homes were firebombed
Susan Bean- children can study books she couldn't
Nelle Wood- censorship is a sin
Emmett Thompson- devout Christian, believes the books are blasphemy
Alice Moore- school board member, only one to vote against the textbooks, said they taught G-d was a myth
By 1978 committee of parents had veto power over books their children were taught, english textbooks had caused holy war, used only in South Hills
Jesse Jackson
Black civil rights leader
Disciple of MLK
Complicated political views
Abortion as murder
School prayer
Spanking disobedient children
Supports women's liberation but thinks his wife should stay at home
Contradictory- praises traditional family but rarely goes home, denounces materialism but has huge wardrobe
"apostle of self-help
Bridge for black and whites based on ethnicity and common tribal needs
Goal: education of black youth
Forest Hills, New York
1960s liberal Jews who moved from the Lower East Side during WWII when new migrants came to America
1970s low income housing project because area seemed liberal and accepting but did not discuss with city officials
people were afraid of them and fear of crime, closet racists
Chuck Favreau- teacher believed had to bridge the two worlds through sports leagues food nursery schools and service centers
South Boston
About busing of students
1972 NAACP filed class action suit against school board for violating Fourteenth Amendment Rights
1974 Judge Garrity ruled that integration through busing must begin
First day of school- protesters
The Yippies
Politically minded versions of peaceful New Left counterparts the hippies
December 1967 formed from Youth International Party
Protest politics, street theater, and countercultural idealism
Paul Krassner- a founder who used his San Fransisco newspaper as an important outlet
After bloody August 1968 National Democratic Party Convention in Chicago newspapers especially important
advertised "festival of life" in Chicago- antiwar gathering and positive alternative to convention
Own alternative candidate- Pigasus
Laced the city water with LSD and danced naked in the streets
Mayor Daley ordered police to tear gas and club them

Huge schism happening within the United States as many Americans, such as those who were a part of the Convention, saw the Yippies as "radical subversives," while others in the New Left, such as those who participated in the "Festival of Life," treated them instead as "outlaw heroes."
Proxy Power
Obtaining stock in businesses in order to force social gains
Protest tactic organized by radical organizer Saul Alinksy 1967 fight discrimination in the workplace
Accusation of Eastman Kodak for not hiring enough blacks
FIGHT (local black ghetto organization) helped gain support of churches also holding stock
Alinsky formed Proxies for People which sold proxies to activists, foundations, mutual funds, churches, and universities
Consciousness 3
Spontaneous growth of new individuals in 1960s
Product of promise of life made through affluence technology liberation and ideals, combated by threat of boring jobs Vietnam and nuclear holocause
The Consciousness 3 generation believed they could have a free life, and were not confined to regular jobs, superficial stresses of attractiveness, popularity and sports.
The C3 generation also live by and make use of technology widely ranging from the Xerox machine to the pill.
Instead of having family ties they are tied to youth culture.
clean cut --> hippie
Believe in world as a community
Vietnam - destruction of people, environment, depersonalization, war by the rich and powerful against poor and helpless
Clothes - earthy and sensual feel non restrictive
Music- express themselves and connect to inner feelings
Drugs to increase awareness
Restore protect and foster human consciousness
The Kinsey Reports
Biologist researched human sexuality
Detailed sexual lives of american men and women
Found dramatic divide between overt attitudes towards sexual practices and the covert actuality
Private moved more into public sphere
Earth Day 1970
Major demonstration in Philly with Allen Ginsburg, Ian McHarg, Ralph Nader
In crowd were important political figures
many corporations began to tout their environmental records in response to this potential backlash
Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnic
Michael Novak
Book epitomized new ethnic identity politics
Melting pot analogy replaced with unmeltable stew as white ethnics began to rediscover their ethnic origins as part of the search for authenticity
Four Revolutions
Raising insubordination into a culture, to eat, dress, smoke, dance
Uprising in the zone of the spirit: Beatniks, Buddhism, transcendentalism, etc → the new sensibility spreading - spiritual revolution, against the customs of mental freedom.
Most violent revolution - the revolution against Western imperialism - worriment that the high power high tech West had met its nemesis
The effort to throw off the dead weight of totalitarianism this was against the dictatorships of the left.
Consciousness II
Self awareness but fails to challenge societal values, homogenous, conformity
Consciousness I
Sense of survival
Women's Strike for Equality
Protest 1970
Celebration of 50th anniversary of 19th Amendment
Sponsored by NOW
Aimed to secure equal opportunity in workforce, abortion, childcare, and political representation
Douglas criticizes patronizing news media coverage of the movement
Charlie's Angels
1976
Three beautiful and athletic women assigned missions by mysterious angent Charlie
Married feminist and anti feminist clashes: young and empowered women was key to success in missions, but sexy and ultra feminine and Charlie was ultimate patriarch
Mario Savio
End to History 1964
Free Speech Movement Leader
FSM protest at Berkeley 4,000 people in response to arrest of CORE member
SNCC and young republicans
Diggers
Group of counter culture "activists/improv actors"
Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco. 1966-68
Advocated idea of "free city"- things would be given away or bargained for w/o money
Seen as the extreme culture culture, inspired "hippie culture"
Thousands of young people flocked to height-ashbury in the late sixties as part of the counter culture movement
Stonewall Inn
Gay Bar
Riot broke out June 1969
1st time that gay community openly resisted police
pre-cursor of the gay rights movement
Greenwich Village
Haven for gay bars and restaurants
Confrontation style
Imitated black power movement
Rejected idea of assimilation
Performative politics
"coming out"

Most vocal anti gay - Anita Bryant
Yablonski family
Clarksville Pennsylvania family was murdered on New Year's Eve 1969, apparently by the forces of big labor when Jock Yablonski (the father) tried (unsuccessfully) to unseat the power president of the United Mine Workers of America (Tony Boyle).

It represents, according to Cowie, the oppressiveness and ruthlessness of the UMWA and how its tacits increasingly alienated the workers in the Union
All-in-the family/Archie bunker
To Cowie, this symbolizes blue collar america. Archie is the stereotypical, somewhat racist worker who values his patriarchy and authority. His foil, meathead, is the opposite, a sociology graduate who only wants to help society but does not work himself.
Columbia University Takeover
demanding more representation and rights
Rubin and Hoffman, Yippie leaders were arrested there for their radical activism
iconic of the struggles for a voice and representation
National Mobilization to End the War in Vietnam
Anitwar movement that also participated in the '68 DNC protect. The offered support to any protest against the State. Chaired by Dave Dellinger.
SANE
The committee for a SANE nuclear policy did not bring Vietnam into the mix because they opposed all war and nuclear policy and did not want Vietnam to taint their large views
Title VIII
Fair Housing Act
Part of the Civil Rights Act of 1968
Forbade discrimination in housing by race, creed, national origin, or sex.

However, the fair housing act left it up to private individuals or advocacy groups to file suit against housing discrimination, which made the act more of a symbolic gesture than anything.
Black Manifesto
James Forman
called for 500 million dollars of reparations from white churches and synagogues, with the funds supporting endeavors such as black-run TV networks, job-training programs, and welfare rights groups.
Forman read the manifesto at NYC's Riverside Church, interrupting services. Many churches took Forman's demands seriously, and though there was little financial gain, the manifesto was a success in terms of its generation of serious discussion about the nature of reparations.
Projet Excell
project proposed by Jesse Jackson in 1978 and endorsed by several schools, intended at improving black kids' self-discipline and commitment to education and studying in high school
pledge to commit fully to homework and studying two hours per day after school, rigor from teacher and school, control from parents monitoring activities, picking up report cards and meeting teachers.
Parallel with Grace Sherman's control of her son Henry.
The Harlan Coal Mine Brookside strike
Summer 1973 in an eastern Kentucky non-unionized coal mine
after the Brookside Coal Company refused the creation of a United Mine Workers (UMW) chapter
lasted for one year
The increasing coverage by the media raised much hope about a quick settlement marking the beginning of a series of success for unions and miners for better wages, safety conditions and medical coverages in eastern Kentucky.

Despite Brookside strikers obtained a contract from BCC which made their mine the unionized one, working and life conditions of miners didn't really improve in the region and unions failed at opening new chapters, abandoning the struggle to focus on other issues. Departure of the media after the strike and UMW failure and lack of commitment left a deep feeling of bitterness among the miners, "the lost tribe of the working-class"
Long Hot SUmmers
Riots
Not organized by activists
Took to streets to burn and loot
Common in liquor stores
Political consciousness of what they were doing
Few were black panthers, few were radical
Defined what they were doing in political terms
Took power into their own hands
Territorial terms
Pushed for self determination --> shaped by both national and international context
Self determination
For blacks:
Anti colonialism
Malcolm X Nation of Islam
Inner city as colony
Language of imperialism
Separate territory to be governed by African Americans

For women:
Demands for bodily control
Grew out of women's liberation motto the personal is political
women should not have their bodies controlled by patriarchal system
Holistic medicine
Health clinics created
--> all female staffs
--> safe place
--> not poke and prodded by male doctors
Most controversial part: reproductive freedom
Anti Liberalism
SNCC
nonviolent turn
organizing blacks in the black panther party
self determination of economic control and self defense (police as occupying force + imperialists)
Detroit 67
Did not involve whites
African American communities
July 23rd 1967
Police broke up a party at an illegal after hours speak easy
Blind pigs- previous owners paid off the police
Riots broke out
Detroit burned for a week
43 people killed
Military brought in
Police angry- took out anger on protesters, joined the national guard because they didn't want to go to Vietnam but ended up in a war zone at home
shot out street lights
17,000 armed officials in streets
several thousand people arrested
Personal is Political
We are all feminists now
1930s - suffrage
1940s - pushing towards ERA
Women need safe places
Clinics based on bodies
Increasingly challenged the patriarchy
Gay Liberation Movement
Personal political
New term and acceptance
Before people would engage in homosexual activities but did not define them as homosexual
Common in cities
1920s articles with men dressed in drag
1930s states and federal government slowly beginning to crack down on gay activities
1934 talking films- Hollywood Studio Hays Code banned men and women in same bed, nudity, specifically targeted homosexuality (couldn't even mention it)
Late 1930s crackdown on gay bars
Medical profession declared it a mental illness
Post WWII prosecution of gay soldiers
"Lavender Scare" - gays associated with communism, "could be easily blackmailed", 1950 federal govt fired 91 members of Department of State on grounds of moral turpitude --> threat to national security because they could be manipulated
1953 Eisenhower government agencies purged of suspected homosexuals, mass firings
In army - gay men discovered they were not alone
Preservation vs Conservation
Preservationists
- romanticized wilderness
- argued that those places need to be protected from human encroachment
- hoarded off
- jewels- guarded as a treasure
- remain undeveloped --> creation of national park system
Conservationists
- efficiency
-rationing
- saw land and vegetation as economic resources
- used carefully and cautiously
- limited resources
- if depleted bad outcomes
- did not believe in protecting full areas of wilderness
- creation of national forest system
- meant to be used for economic purpsoes
Vietnamization
What Nixon cared about
Transferring the war from the Americans to the Vietnamese
Americans still involved- bombing of Cambodia
Put pressure on North Vietnamese
Heaviest air strikes were during the Nixon administration
Nixon and China
Opening
Multipolarity
Putting communist regimes against one another
Dispute over India
China vs. USSR
Battled over border lengths over the control of territory - Ussury River
Met with Mao Ze Dong
One of the most celebrated parts
Losing China
Turned China into an enormous communist regime
JFK and LBJ took aggressive positions in East Asia
Nixon's most brilliant foreign policy move
Mandate for economic growth
USSR and Nixon
Detante
Used new relationship with china to force soviets to sit down to negotiate the arms race
Reorienting american foreign policy in a more realistic way
Anti communist Cold War redirect
Many argued president had sold out American principles
--> made the world safer for communism
--> dangerous foreign policy that would empower the soviets and the Chinese
Chile and Nixon
Coup
Eisenhower started it
Continuing to fight Cold War by proxy in the developing world
Socialist government
Leading to Agustin Pinoche- dictatorship
US not interested in democracy or freedom but were happy to prop up brutal dictators because they served America's political aids
Building on 1950s COld War currents but also breaking away
Fashioned distinctive foreign policy
Reshuffle Cold War for next 20 years
Wanted to be remembered as architect of new foreign policy
Distrust of the government
JFK --> LBJ --> Nixon