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Lecture 3 - Pharmacology
Terms in this set (30)
Steps of Therapy
Reassessing the problem
Monitoring the therapy
Implementing the therapy
Selecting the therapy
Assessing the options
Assessing the problems
What are the therapeutic uses of drugs?
Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment
What factors influence the choice of therapy?
Benefit (should outweigh risk)
What factors influence a pt's response to therapy?
Therapeutic index (drug's balance - more or less)
Disease (organ function)
Age (maturity of organs)
Clinical response to therapy can be affected by:
Drug potency (check expiration dates!)
Drug interactions (and food)
Drug abuse is
a non-medical use of a substance; detrimental to user, family, and society
Drug dependence is
physical withdrawal symptoms; psychological - pt desires, but NO physical signs
a drug seeking behavior; may have dependence
happens in the tissues; body requires large amounts to produce same effects
are at great risk for substance abuse; work in very stressful environments; have access to drugs; may believe they are invulnerable due to knowledge
Nursing Process in 5 steps
2.) Nursing Diagnosis
Assessment of a pt can be both:
Subjective - pt history, drug history (Rx, OTC), allergies as well as Objective - physical exam, lab tests
Elements of a patient's history could include:
allergies, medical history, socioeconomic level, lifestyle, beliefs, Rx, OTC
A Nursing Diagnosis
is made based on the analysis of the assessment data; can include a problem statement (NANDA label), etiology (cause of problem), S+S (supporting data as manifested by..)
the Planning phase of the Nursing Process
is characterized by goal setting or expected outcomes - what should the pt look like; has to be measureable/objective; must include 1 behavior per goal; a time frame; always focus on patient
the Intervention phase of the Nursing Process
should provide education, medication administration, patient care, and other implementations necessary to assist the patient in accomplishing the established goals; actions should be independent, interdependent, and dependent
a Medication Order should include
full name of medication
dose clearly written
What are the 5 Rights of medication administration
1.) right patient (2 forms of ID)
2.) right drug
3.) right dose
4.) right route
5.) at the right time
Error omission constitutes
failing to provide necessary care; malpractice issue
Error of commission is
improper care - know your calculations!; malpractice issue
the Evaluation phase of the Nursing Process
looks back at the expected outcome - was the Rx effective, did patient comply, were there adverse side effects, was everything documented in patient's record
Why was streptomycin (aminoglycoside) discontinued?
mutation of bacteria proved it ineffective; we now use Gentamycin and Tobramycin
what are the Pharmacokinetics of Aminoglycoside?
administered IM, IV - poorly absorbed po; distributed widely; not metabolized; excreted by the kidneys
what is the Mechanism of Action of Aminoglycoside?
transported across bacterial cell membrane and inhibits protein synthesis; bacteriostatic; inhibits multiplication/growth
what are the Pharmacotherapeutics of Aminoglycoside?
used for major infections, nosocomial infections, and critically ill patient's
what drug does Aminoglycosides interact with?
penicillin - give at least 1 H apart
what are the adverse reactions to Aminoglycosides?
limit use due to serious toxicity (ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity); assess for renal or hearing disorders
twice a day/3 times a day/4 times a day
before meals/after meals
right eye (oculus dexter)/both eyes(oculus unitus)/left eye (oculus sinister)
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