Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience Ch 8 (all parts)
Neil R Carlson
Terms in this set (94)
measures neural activity, brain's electrical activity
measures muscle activity
measures eye movement
Brain waves associated with mental activity
Brain waves associated with relaxed wakefulness
Brain waves associated with deep relaxation and beginning sleep
Brain waves associated with being in a deep sleep
Slow wave sleep
stages 3 and 4 of sleep are known as
Stage 3 of sleep
20-50% delta activity (EEG)
Stage 4 sleep
more than 50% delta activity (EEG)
cycles per second
alpha and beta
Brain waves that occur while awake
waves of 8-12 Hz, medium frequency
The brain produces this activity when a person is resting quietly, not particularly aroused or excited and not engaged in strenuous mental activity (such as problem solving).
waves of 13-30 Hz
beta and REM
These brain waves show desynchrony (low amplitude 'fast' wave activity); it reflects the fact that many different neural circuits in the brain are actively processing information.
occurs when a person is alert and attentive to events in the environment or is thinking actively or during REM sleep.
EEG activity of 3.5-7.5 Hz that occurs intermittently during early stages of slow-wave and REM sleep.
Regular, synchronous electrical activity of less than 4 Hz recorded from the brain; occurs during the deepest stages of slow-wave sleep.
5 to 10 minutes
stage 1 sleep lasts for
stage 2 sleep lasts for
15 to 20 minutes
stage 3 sleep lasts for
30 to 45 minutes
stage 4 sleep lasts for
20 to 30 minutes
REM sleep lasts for
each occurrence in a night's sleep of ____ sleep lasts longer than the previous one. It can last for up to one hour.
REM sleep is also referred to as ______________ because while the brain and other body systems become more active muscles become more relaxed. Dreaming occurs because of increased brain activity, but voluntary muscles become paralyzed.
REM, stage 4
Throughout a sleep cycle, _______ sleep gets longer and _____ sleep gets shorter.
A problem staying or falling asleep
people have different sleep requirements, self reports are not reliable
diagnosing insomnia requires careful considerations because of these 2 things.
Cessation of breathing while sleeping
cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations
Narcoleps consists of sleep attacks of
paralysis while awake
paralysis just before or after falling asleep
hallucinations or dreams during sleep paralysis
irrestible urge to fall asleep, person wakes up feeling refreshed after just a few minutes
In humans, narcolepsy appears to be caused by a ______________ disorder.
Most patients with narcolepsy are born with _____________, but during adolescence the immune system attacks these neurons, and the symptoms of narcolepsy begin.
A peptide produced by neurons whose cell bodies are located in the hypothalamus; their destruction causes narcolepsy.
orexin is also known as
Orexin cell bodies are located where
REM sleep behavior disorder
no paralysis during REM sleep
REM sleep behavior disorder
a neurodegenerative disorder with a genetic component, associated with Parkinson's disease
REM sleep behavior disorder
the drugs that are used to treat the symptoms of cataplexy will aggravate the symptoms of _______
REM sleep behavior disorder is usually treated with
clonazepam is an example of a
CNS depressants or sedative/hypnotics. They effect the central nervous system by introducing chemicals in the brain that enhance production of GABA
Slow wave sleep (stages 3 & 4)
behavioral problems of this sleep include bedwetting (nocturnal enuresis), sleepwalking (somnambulism), and night terrors (pavor nocturnus).
sleep related eating disorder
A disorder in which the person leaves his or her bed and seeks out and eats food while sleepwalking, usually without memory for the episode the next day.
Fatal familial insomnia
A fatal inherited disorder that results in damage to portions of the thalamus; characterized by progressive insomnia.
People with fatal familial insomnia have damage to portions of the _______
This indicates that people need REM sleep and it must be controlled by a regulatory mechanism.
Infants spend about _____% of their time in REM sleep
6 month olds spend about ____% of their time in REM sleep.
8 year olds spend about ____% of their time in REM sleep.
adults spend about ____% of their time in REM sleep.
Memories that people can talk about, such as memories of past experiences. They also include memories of relationships between stimuli or events, such as the spatial relationships between landmarks that permit us to navigate around our environment.
Nondeclarative memories (muscle memory)
Memories gained through experience and practice that do not involve an attempt to "memorize" information, such as learning to drive a car, throw and catch a ball, or recognize a person's face.
Nondeclarative memories (muscle memory)
REM sleep seems to help most with what kind of memories
Slow-wave sleep (SWS) seems to help most with what kind of memories
REM and SWS (slow-wave sleep)
These two kinds of sleep can incur sleep debt and credit
Adenosine (Poe uses GAB and Ad to put us to sleep)
A neuromodulator that is released by neurons engaging in high levels of metabolic activity, may play a primary role in the initiation of sleep.
preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA of the hypothalamus)
Where is adenosine primarily produced?
Locus coeruleus ("Lo Co No")
A dark-colored group of noradrenergic cell bodies (release norepinephrine) located in the pons near the rostral end (towards the front) of the floor of the fourth ventricle; involved in arousal and vigilance.
This releases norepinephrine. It is involved in arousal and vigilance.
A group of nuclei located in the reticular formation of the medulla, pons, and midbrain, situated along the midline; contains serotonergic neurons.
Raphe nuclei (Raffi gave Sare to MPM)
This contains serotonin
tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) (tube your old mammals Hillary)
A nucleus in the ventral posterior hypothalamus, just rostral to the mammillary bodies; contains histaminergic neurons involved in cortical activation and behavioral arousal.
Ventrolateral preoptic area (vlPOA) (Poe uses GAB to put us to sleep)
A group of GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area whose activity suppresses alertness and behavioral arousal and promotes sleep.
GABA (main inhibitory neurons)
The ventrolateral preoptic area (vlPOA) contains what type of neurons.
vlPOA - ventrolateral preoptic area (very little Edgar Allan Poe puts me to sleep)
Destruction of this area has been reported to result in total insomnia, coma, and eventual death in rats.
Brain areas near the ________ make us sleep.
Brain areas near the ________ keep us awake.
vlPOA - Ventrolateral preoptic area
The major sleep promoting region.
basal forebrain and pontine regions; locus coeruleus (LC); raphe nuclei; and tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus
The major wakefulness promoting regions.
SLD nucleus - Sublaterodorsal nucleus (Sleep Like Dreams nucleus)
A region of the dorsal pons, just ventral to the locus coeruleus, that forms the REM-ON portion of the REM sleep flip-flop.
vlPAG - ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (very little Paige stops me from dreaming... very little amount of Jimmy Paige's guitar music stops me from dreaming)
A region of the dorsal midbrain that forms the REM-OFF portion of the REM sleep flip-flop.
A daily rhythmical change in behavior or physiological process.
A stimulus (usually the light of dawn) that resets the biological clock responsible for circadian rhythms.
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (Super Cheese omatic nucleus)
A nucleus situated atop the optic chiasm. It contains a biological clock responsible for organizing many of the body's circadian rhythms.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is atop of what
A photopigment present in ganglion cells in the retina whose axons transmit information to the SCN, the thalamus, and the olivary pretectal nuclei.
ganglion cells in the retina
where is melanopsin located
The pineal gland is attached to what
A gland attached to the dorsal tectum; produces melatonin and plays a role in circadian and seasonal rhythms.
The pineal gland produces what
A hormone secreted during the night by the pineal body; plays a role in circadian and seasonal rhythms.
SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus), thalamus, olivary pretectal nuclei (Super cheese omatic; Thalamus, Olives vary... Protect all nuc's!!)
Melanopsin axons transmit information from the retina to what
this produces melatonin
the acetylcholinergic (ACh) system of the dorsolateral pons and basal forebrain,
the noradrenergic (NE) system of the locus coeruleus,
the serotonergic (5-HT) system of the raphe nuclei,
the histaminergic system of the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus
the orexinergic system of the lateral hypothalamus
The brain stem contains an arousal mechanism with five major components:
dorsolateral pons and basal forebrain
the acetylcholinergic (ACh) system of the
the noradrenergic (NE) system of the
the serotonergic (5-HT) system of the
tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus
the histaminergic system of the
the orexinergic system of the
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