How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

46 terms

ch 6-skeletal system

STUDY
PLAY
Which of following is a function of the skeletal system?
protection of internal organs
blood cell production
calcium homeostasis
body support
All of the answers are correct.
all
small and flat bones that develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, feet
sesamoid
Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called
osteoblasts.
osteoprogenitor cells.
osteocytes.
chondrocytes.
osteoclasts
osteoblasts
Bone is composed of ________ percent cells
2
Through the action of osteoclasts,
fractured bones regenerate.
new bone is formed.
an organic framework is formed.
bony matrix is dissolved.
osteoid is calcified
bony matrix is dissolved
The space occupied by an osteocyte is called a
lacuna.
trabecula.
Volkmann's canal.
Venetian canal.
Haversian cana
lacuna
________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum.
Osteoclast
Osteoprogenitor
Chondroblast
Osteoid
Osteocyte
osteoprogenitor
In bone, the calcium phosphate forms crystals of ________
hydroxyapatite
Cells that free calcium from bone to maintain blood calcium levels are called
osteoclasts
The trabeculae of spongy bone
are organized along stress lines.
will collapse under stress.
are concentrated in the cortex of the diaphysis.
are organized parallel to the long axis of the bone.
are composed mostly of cartilage.
are organized along stress lines
Blood is distributed from the surface of a bone to deeper central canals through channels known as ________.
perforating canals
Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a(n)
osteoblasts model.
fibrous connective-tissue model.
cartilage model.
calcified model.
membranous model.
cartilage model
Secondary ossification centers occur
in the epiphyses.
in dermal bones.
at the periosteum.
in the diaphysis.
in the metaphyses
epiphyses
Intramembranous ossification begins with differentiation of ________ cells.
osteocyte
osteoprogenitor
osteoblast
osteoclast
mesenchymal
mesenchymal
Intramembranous ossification
occurs in all bones before birth.
occurs inside a bag of cartilage.
produces flat bones as in the bones of the roof of the skull.
explains how a juvenile's bone can grow in length.
occurs in the diaphysis of a long bone.
produces flat bones
Bone tissue formation begins when osteoblasts secrete
collagen fibers.
calcium.
silica.
hydroxyapatite.
mesenchyme
collagen
When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,
puberty begins.
the bone becomes more brittle.
long bones have reached their adult length.
interstitial bone growth begins.
appositional bone growth begins.
long bones have reached their adult length.
Accelerated closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by
elevated levels of estrogen.
too little thyroxine.
too much calcium in the diet.
high levels of vitamin D.
an excess of growth hormon
elevated levels of estrogen.
During the process of ________, an existing tissue is replaced by bone.
ossification
The process of depositing calcium into a tissue is called ________.
calcification
what hormone helps absorb calcium and phosphorus from digestive tract
calicitrol
what hormones stimulate bone growth
growth homrone and thyroxine
what stimulates osteoblasts
estrogens and androgens
what is the most abundant mineral in the body
calcium
Excessive growth hormone prior to puberty could result in
dwarfism.
osteoporosis.
osteopenia.
giantism.
ricket
giantism
Factors that are necessary for proper bone formation include all of the following, except
vitamin A.
the hormone thyroxine.
vitamin D.
vitamin C.
vitamin E.
e
Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of
iron.
sulfate.
sodium.
potassium.
calcium
calcium
The condition known as osteopenia
is caused by too much vitamin D in the diet.
affects mostly women.
only affects the femur.
causes a gradual reduction in bone mass.
is rarely seen as people age.
causes a gradual reduction in bone mass
Mary is 50 years old and has entered menopause. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone might she prescribe for her patient?
thyroid hormone
growth hormone
parathyroid hormone
calcitonin
estrogen
estrogen
osteogenesis
bone formation
what bone cell does this:
To maintain protein and mineral content of matrix
To help repair damaged bone
DO NOT DIVIDE
osteocyte
Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds
osteoblasts
mesenchymal stem cells that divide to produce osteoblasts
located in endosteum
assist in fracture repair
osteoprogenitor
secrete acids and protein digesting enzymes
giant multinucleated cells
dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals
osteoclasts
form pathways for blood vessels
exchange nutrients and wastes.

located in the osteocytes
canaliculi
what minerals are bone matrix composed of and what do the two combine to form?
calcium phosphate
calcium hydroxide
forms hydroxyapatite
what is the matrix composed of
minerals
proteins
what proteins make up matrix
collagen
mature bone cells that maintain bone matrix
osteocytes
cell that rebuilds bone
osteoblasts
creates osteoblasts
osteoprogenitor
tears down bone
osteoclasts
A central canal and the concentric osseous lamellae encircling it, occurring in compact bone.
osteons
what is the space between the trabaculae filled with?
red and yellow bone marrow
functions of red bone marrow
forms red blood cells
supplies nutrients to osteocytes
compact bone thickens and strengthens long bone with layers of circumferential lamellae
appositional growth