Terms in this set (120)
The group______________ is recognized because its members have four legs. A. Malacostraca B. Insecta C. Arachnida D. TetrapodaD - Tetrapods are four-limbed vertebrate animals Arachnida have 8 legs Insecta have 3 pairs (6) jointed appendages Malacostraca is a very morphologically diverse group of crustaceansThe definition: a group that does not include the common ancestor or that includes descendants of more than one ancestor is applied to_______. A. Monophyletic taxa B. Paraphyletic taxa C. Polyphyletic taxaC - Polyphyletic: group or assemblage of organisms, or other evolving elements, that is of mixed evolutionary origin, sharing more than one common ancestor Monophyletic: includes an ancestral taxon and all of its descendants Paraphyletic: a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and most of its descendants, excluding a few monophyletic subgroupsSome years ago, the group of Reptiles included snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and all the similar reptilian species except birds. Under light of the new classification that we know today, the group of Reptiles includes birds. Before this new classification was established, the group Reptiles was a _________. A. Paraphyletic B. Monophyletic C. PolyphyleticA - Paraphyletic reptiles contained all all sauropsida amniotes except Aves (birds) but now contains those tooImagine you have different hypotheses explaining the relationships of species A, B, and C. The number of potential hypotheses explaining the relationships of these species will be ________. A. 6 B. 9 C. 3 D. 12A Possible combinations abc, bca, cab, cba, bac, acbImagine you have different hypotheses explaining the relationships of species A, B, and C. The best hypothesis explaining the relationships of species A, B and C will be that hypothesis that contains ________. A. the highest number of evolutionary changes (morphological/molecular/genetic changes) B. the lowest number of evolutionary changes (morphological/molecular/genetic changes) C. no changes at allB. Lowest number of changes, there need to be some changes between groups in order to suggest they are not the same species but if there are too many changes between each group there's a chance it's out of order as evolution is a gradual changeImagine you have different hypotheses explaining the relationships of species A, B, and C. One of the criteria to choose the best hypothesis from the scenario above is _______. A. evolution B. natural selection C. parsimony D. paedomorphismC Parsimony. parsimony is the simplest/least complex method of showing relationships between species (least changes between groups) evolution: that does play a part but not the best way to explain the best way to set up a phylogenetic tree paedomorphism: not applicable as paedomorphism is the retention in the adult of infantile/juvenile characteristicsImagine you have different hypotheses explaining the relationships of species A, B, and C. The practice based on simplicity, such as selecting the tree with the lowest evolutionary changes, is termed________. A. evolution B. natural selection C. parsimony D. paedomorphismC. parsimony - parsimony is the simplest/least complex method of showing relationships between species (least changes between groups) evolution: that does play a part but not the best way to explain the best way to set up a phylogenetic tree paedomorphism: not applicable as paedomorphism is the retention in the adult of infantile/juvenile characteristicsThe term applied to primitive characteristics shared by different groups of living organisms is _________. A. synapomorphy B. symplesiomorphy C. plesiomorphy D. apomorphyA. synapomorphy: A synapomorphy is an apomorphy shared by two or more taxa and is therefore hypothesized to have evolved in their most recent common ancestor. an apomorphy (or derived trait) is a novel character or character state that has evolved from its ancestral form (or plesiomorphy). plesiomorphy: character state that is present in both outgroups and in the ancestors. plesiomorphy and symplesiomorphy are synonyms for an ancestral character shared by all members of a clade, which does not distinguish the clade from other clades.Match Letters to Numbers A. paedomorphism B. outgroup C. ingroup D. taxon E. synapomorphy 19. A natural or monophyletic group with a name. 20. An evolutionary retention of larval traits in an adult body. 21. A group of organisms the scientist is studying. 22. A newly developed trait shared by different groups of organisms. 23. The closest group of organisms to the group the scientist is studying and how it is used to polarize characters.A: 20 B: 23 C: 21 D: 19 E: 2224. Which one from the list below is a chordate's feature A. no pharyngeal slits B. two germinal layers C. exoskeleton D. postanal tailD. posts anal tail. chordate features include: a notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tailThe endostyle changes later in to ___________ in most species of chordates. A. thyroid gland B. thymus gland C. adrenal gland D. pituitary gland E. pineal glandA. thyroid gland. The endostyle corresponds to the thyroid in vertebrates, since it seems to produce iodinated, tyrosine molecules, which may function as regulatory substances, much like hormones, in amphioxi.Originated in the Ordovician in what is today North America, Ostracoderms are primitive vertebrates. Although some derived features appeared in these fossils such as dermal armor, Ostracoderms lacked____. A. vertebrae B. scales C. endostyle D. jawsD. jaws. Ostracoderms are an intermediate group between jawed and jawless vertebrates. They had movable mouth plates but they were not jaws. also had a carapace (dermal bone), considered more evolvedMatch the following A. physostomous fishes B. physoclistous fishes C. ram ventilation D. myomeres E. hyperosmolal fishes 27. The body fluid concentration of these fishes is higher than that of the environment. 28. Fishes with swim bladder connected to the digestive tract. 29. Segmented packages of muscles located in the lateral sides of Chordates. 30. Fishes use this behavior to create a respiratory current by swimming with their mouth open. 31. Fishes with swim bladders not connected to the digestive tract.A. physostomous fishes: 28 B. physoclistous fishes: 31 C. ram ventilation: 30 D. myomeres: 29 E. hyperosmolal fishes: 27Imagine a small vertebrate with a cubic-shaped body. If the length of the side on that cubic-shaped animal is 1cm, the area/volume ratio would be___. A. 5 B. 6 C. 2 D. 3 E. 1B. 6 Surface Area = height x width x # of sides = 6 volume = height x width x length = 1 surface area ratio = Surface Area / volumeIf the length of the side (cube) is 6cms, the area/volume ratio would be___. A. 1 B. 3 C. 2 D. 1.666666 E. 6A. 1 Surface Area = height x width x # of sides = 216 volume = height x width x length = 216 surface area ratio = Surface Area / volumeFrom the two previous questions above, you can conclude that all of the statements listed below are true except. A. Large vertebrates have small areas compared with their volumes B. Large vertebrates would have the tendency to lose less water than small vertebrates C. Large vertebrates have larger areas compared with their volumes D. Large vertebrates are more efficient at conserving heat than small vertebrates E. Large vertebrates are more efficient using energy than small vertebratesA. Large vertebrates have small areas compared with their volumes The small animals had a higher area than the volume while large animals have much larger volumes to match their large area. large bodies are also better at conserving water and heatMatch Numbers with Letters A. Agnatha B. Gnathostomata C. Tetrapoda D. Birds E. Amniota 35. Vertebrates with jaws. 36. This group includes mammals and reptiles+birds. 37. Vertebrates without jaws. 38. Vertebrates with feathers. 39. Vertebrates with four legs.A. Agnatha: 37 B. Gnathostomata: 35 C. Tetrapoda: 39 D. Birds: 38 E. Amniota: 36The present configuration of the planet Earth is different from the past and can be defined as fragmented in different continents. Continents move, for example, Australia (Oceania) is moving to the north at a speed of 1cm/year and may collide with Southeast Asia in the future. The planet Earth will be different some million years from now, and continents will collide forming again a massive island like Gondwana supercontinent. Which observation best describes this scenario? A. continental drift B. continental stability C. same continental configuration over timeA. continental drift the other things don't existThe present configuration of the planet Earth is different from the past and can be defined as fragmented in different continents. Continents move, for example, Australia (Oceania) is moving to the north at a speed of 1cm/year and may collide with Southeast Asia in the future. The planet Earth will be different some million years from now, and continents will collide forming again a massive island like Gondwana supercontinent. The geological sequence that best describe this scenario is ___________. A. Fragmentation --> fragmentation --> Fragmentation B. Coalescence --> Coalescence --> Coalescence C. Fragmentation --> Coalescence --> fragmentation --> CoalescenceC. Fragmentation --> Coalescence --> fragmentation --> Coalescence BREAKING AND COMING TOGETHER, BREAKING AND COMING TOGETHERThe present configuration of the planet Earth is different from the past and can be defined as fragmented in different continents. Continents move, for example, Australia (Oceania) is moving to the north at a speed of 1cm/year and may collide with Southeast Asia in the future. The planet Earth will be different some million years from now, and continents will collide forming again a massive island like Gondwana supercontinent. The immediate future configuration of the continents will best describe as_______. A. fragmented B. Collapsed C. hard to tellA. FRAGMENTED COLLISION WITH CONTINENTS WILL BREAK SMALLER PIECES OF CONTINENTS OFFContinental drift is explained by the theory called_____. A. Continental movement B. Plate Tectonics C. Random Drift of Landmasses D. Random Movement of Massive IslandsB. PLATE TECTONICS THE CONTINENTS ARE ON PLATES THAT DRIFT ACROSS THE TOP OF THE OCEANThe science that studies the past, present and future configuration of the continents is called______. A. Paleontology B. Orography C. Archeology D. GeologyD. GEOLOGYVertebrates with variable body temperature are called_______. A. endotherms B. ectotherms C. homeothermsB. Ectotherm, the reliance on the external environment to maintain their body temperature does not allow them to keep a constant internal temperature Endotherms and homeotherms are capable of maintaining internal temperatures with internal temperature controlThe condition when vertebrates' body temperature depends on the metabolic production of heat is called_____. A. endothermy B. ectothermy C. poikilothermy D. local ectothermyA. Endothermy. Endothermy is the ability of an organism to generate body heat through a specifically dedicated metabolic activity that is considered to have appeared at least twice in the evolution of vertebrates, in the mammalian and avian lineages. Ectothermy is a method of body temperature control in which the animal utilizes external sources for gaining and giving up heat, thus achieving temperature control without affecting metabolic rate. poikilothermy is not used anymore local ectothermy not sure that's a thingThe group of animals with a mouth that develops secondarily and the blastopore becomes the anus is called _____. A. protostomes B. Chordates C. deuterostomes D. Triploblasticc. deuterostomes. Deuterostomes are animals typically characterized by their anus forming before their mouth during embryonic development. Protostomes, animals whose digestive tract development is more varied. Some examples of deuterostomes include vertebrates, sea stars, and crinoidsAnimals need heat because _______ (choose the best option.) A. they just need heat B. they get cold during cold weather C. heat is the energy required for all the chemical reactions needed for living D. heat provides a comfortable environment for animalsC. heat is the energy required for all the chemical reactions needed for livingThe name of the tail in figure 1 is_____. (see sample exam) A. homocercal B. heretocercal C. diphycercal D. holocercalC. diphycercalvertebrates can be all except______. A. diploblastic B. eukaryotes C. craniates D. triploblastic E. chordatesA. diploblastic. diploblastic animals are radially symmetric and vertebrates are typically triploblastic, they're chordates, possess craniums, and are eukaryotic.All of the properties listed below are Chondrichthyan features except. A. lepidotrichia B. oily liver C. placoid scale D. clasper E. ceratotrichiaA. lepidotrichia. this is a feature of bony fish Sharks have placoid scales, and a very oily liver, male sharks possess claspers, and sharks also have ceratotrichia. Chondrichthyes have ceratotrichia (keratinous) and Osteichthyes have lepidotrichia (bony) - modified rows of bony scalesThe group of animals with an anus that develops secondarily and the blastopore becomes the mouth is called_____. A. protostomes B. Chordates C. deuterostomes D. TriploblasticA. protostomes. Protostomes, animals whose digestive tract development is more varied. Some examples of deuterostomes include vertebrates, sea stars, and crinoids Deuterostomes are animals typically characterized by their anus forming before their mouth during embryonic development.53. The name of the tail in figure 2 is_______. See review exam A. homocercal B. heterocercal C. diphycercal D. holocercalA. homocercalUse the scenario below and figure 3 to answer question. It seems that over the course of time, evolution has favored the tendency of animals to attain large sizes. Large sizes may confer some advantages. One the advantages of being large is the ability to________. A. conserve heat and water B. run form predation faster than smaller animals C. intimidate predators D. have better digestion than smaller animalsA. conserve heat and water more efficient bodyUse the scenario below and figure 3 to answer question. All the statements below are true about your 3 months old litter brother, except (see figure 3 on the right.) A. his heart pumps faster than yours B. compared with size, he eats more than you C. his area/volume ratio is bigger than yours D. compared with size, his metabolic rate lower that yours E. compared with size, he consumes more oxygen than youD. compared with size, his metabolic rate is lower than yours they have a very fast metabolismMatch Letter with Number A) perch B) shark C) manta ray D) ratfish E) lungfish 56. Sarcopterygii. 57. Batoidea. 58. Holocephali. 59. Actinopterygii. 60. Elasmobranchii.A) perch: 59 B) shark: 60 C) manta ray: 57 D) ratfish: 58 E) lungfish: 56Vertebrates characteristicsIntegument, two layers, epidermis and dermis •Distinctive cartilage or bone endoskeleton with vertebrae •Cranium •Circulatory system consisting of ventral heart •MyomeresEvolutionChange through time •Change in gene frequencies in a population of organisms from one generation to the next •All the changes in characteristics and diversity of life on earth throughout its historyFirst Person that discussed evolutionConcept of animals changing through time dates to Greek philosophers: Anaximander (over 2500 yearsDarwinDarwin proposed model to explain process of evolutionReverend Thomas Malthushis book suggested species die due to a growing number of the population and lack of food in response •Reverend Thomas Malthus—An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of SocietyMalthus ObservationsHuman population grows geometrically •Food supply doesn't •More people are born than there is food for, therefore not everyone is going to survive What are the conclusions of this disparity? •More people than food means, many people won't get any food •But, what happen in nature with natural populations? Which individuals of the population survive? The struggle to survive , The fittest Therefore, Darwin's conclusion was survival of the fittestMajor Extant Groups of Vertebrates Non-Amniotes-Hagfish -Lampreys -Chondrichthyes Sharks Rays Ratfishes -Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes) Actinopterygians SarcopterygiansMajor Extant Groups of Vertebrates AmniotesAmniotes -Synapsids Mammals -Sauropsids Testudinia Lepidosauria CrocodiliaPhylogenetic SystemsDeveloped by Willi Hennig •Classifies organisms based on derived characteristics •Defines evolutionary lineages called Clades or branches What is a Clade? •Type of traits/features on the basis of Phylogenetic Systematics -derived or apomorphy -primitive or plesiomorphyprimitive featuresprimitive or plesiomorphyevolved traits-derived or apomorphysynamorphyIt is a newly evolved trait: ie., big brains in humansSymplesiomorphyIt is a shared old trait that evolved long time ago, ie., nothochord in vertebratesCan symplesiomorphy be a synapomorphy ?A synapomorphy can be a symplesiomorphy and a symplesiomorphy a synapomorphyoutgroupclosest relatives to the ingroup ingroup is study speciesparsimonySelect the phylogeny (tree) that requires the fewest evolutionary transitions or stepsHomologous traits identified byHomologous traits identified by -Common underlying structure and positionconvergenceseparate evolution of similar structures in lineages that do not share common ancestryImportance of Morphological characteristics•Only type available for fossils (most of the time) •Can be examined for evidence of homoplasy •Can be very time consuming •Greater potential for non-independentImportance of Molecular characteristicsCan get large numbers of characters fairly quickly •Not available for (most) fossil species •Homoplasy can be difficult to detect •Best genes/regions depend on depth of clade being resolvedWhat is a taxonA taxon is a naturally evolved group that has a name, for example Mammalia, Aves, Primates, Cetacea, etc.monophyletica group of organisms including a single common ancestor and all of the descendants of that ancestor.paraphyletica group that includes the common ancestor and some descendants but does not include all the descendants.polyphyletica group that does not include the common ancestor or that includes descendants of more than one ancestor.Vertebrate Diversity>57,000 extant species •<0.1 g to >100,000 kg •Almost every possible placeerasPaleozoic, Mesozoic, CenozoicPeriods in the Geological Time Scaleunits in an era. cambrian ordovician silurian devonian carboniferous permian triassic jurassic creataceous tertiary quaternaryVertebrate definitionthe term vertebrate is derived from vertebrae •Vertebrae form around the notochord encircling the spinal cord •Cranium that protects the brain, all except hagfishes Lower jaw but hagfishes and lampreys (Jawless fishes) (Gnathostomes or Jawed Vertebrates) Mobility, with muscles that change from V-shaped (in Cephalochordates) to W in Vertebrates •Coelom developed by the Mesoderm •Coelom divides into two or three subcavities A. pleuroperitoneal and B. Pericardial in most vertebrates C. pleural, pericardial and peritoneal (Mammals)Vertebrate relationships to Other AnimalsVertebrates are Chordates that resemble Cephalochordates but are close related with Urochordates or Tunicatesvertebrates are:•Eukaryotes, cells with internal membranes, ie., nucleus •Chordates •Metazoan, because they are multicellular •Bilateria, bilateral symmetry Deuterostomes, because their mouth has a secondary origin, and the anus develops from the blastopore •Coelomates, present true coelom with mesenteries •Triploblastic, because they three germinal layersembryonic layer developmentthree germinal layers direct the organogenesis in the group Vertebrates •Ectoderm •mesoderm •EndodermEndodermthe inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and endocrine (gland)Ectodermoutmost layer forms the central nervous, peripheral nerves, epidermisMesodermmiddle germ layer; develops into muscles, and much of the circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systems coelom and dermisTissue definition and typesA tissue is a group of cells, similar in structure, that perform a common function •Types of tissue: •Epithelial •Connective, such as bone, cartilage, Blood •Nervous •MuscularVertebrate CharacteristicsThe notochord forms the vertebral column that is the place for the axial muscles' attachment •The axial musculature is composed by myomeres •Myomeres have changed from V-shaped in Cephalochordates to W-Shaped in VertebratesPALEONTOLOGYthe scientific study of fossilsHOMOLOGYSimilarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry.ANALOGYA comparison of two different things that are similar in some wayWhen tetrapods originated, what era?Late Devonian, 360mya, •Fish-like Ichthyostega and Acanthostega •During the early Carboniferous, tatrapods radiated into two lineages: •batrachomorpha (Amphibia) and AmniotaWhat is a tetrapod animal?Tetrapods are four-limbed vertebrate animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda. It includes extant and extinct amphibians, sauropsids and synapsids.PARALLELISMPhrases or sentences of a similar construction/meaning placed side by side, balancing each otherANAXIMANDERearly Greek naturalist who advocated spontaneous generation as the origin of lifeDarwinEnglish natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)Malthusan English economist and demographer; all biological populations have a potential for increase that exceeds the actual rate of increase, and the resources for the support of increase are limitedDOBZHANSKy"Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution"HAGFISHLike a giant earthworm and has not backbone but still considered a fish. Has tongue teeth and feeds on already dead fish that have sunk to the bottom of the sea.CHONDRICHTHYEscartilaginous fishes includes the sharks, rays, and skatesOSTEICHTHYESa class of fish having a skeleton composed of bone in addition to cartilageLampreya jawless fish characterized by a toothed, funnel-like, sucking mouthDescribe the problems of shark finning.The fins of the shark are cut off and exported to Asian markets while the shark is still alive and left to die at sea. The loss of the shark population leads to a loss of an apex predator causing a cascade of adverse effects down the food chainDescribe social behavior in sharksOriginally thought to be solitary and asocial, now believed that sharks of many species aggregate in great numbersWhat is matrotrophy? ExamplesA form of development in which the embryo is supplied with additional nutrition from the mother (e.g. through a placenta)What is lecithotrophy? Exampleslecithotrophy," nutrients are provided by the yolk of the ovum A form of development in which the embryo receives no nutrition other than the yolk originally contained within its egg.What is electroreceptiondetection of electric fields generated by living organisms; eletric fields produced as a result of the movement of charged ions within the organism -have electroreceptive structures on their headhow is electroreception in Elasmobranchs?shark has special receptors located around the head that detect electric fields. These receptors can help a shark find a fish hidden under the sand by detecting its heartbeat. A shark also uses this sense to position its head and mouth when moving in for the final attack.chemoreception in sharksSharks breathe through the gills at the back of the mouth. Most of their 'smelling' is done using a process called chemoreception, which allows sharks to sense tiny pieces of stuff, called molecules, hiding in the water as they pass through their naresOther than protection, what other function serve placoid scales of Elasmobranch?Placoid scales (dermal denticles) are tough scales, that cover the skin of elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The function of these scales is for protection against predators, although in some sharks, they may also have a hydrodynamic function.What aminoacid is the source of urea in sharks?Alanine the ammonia isn't absorbed into the shark's body through simple diffusion, but by a biological process. The gas is likely carried into tissues by Rhesus proteins - channels already known to carry ammonia gas molecules across cell membranes. The sharks may use their uncanny ability to take in ammonia to build up urea stores. As scavengers the fish often go for long periods without food—the raw protein supply required to maintain adequate urea levels in their tissues. retain urea so that their bodies are at the same salt concentration as the salt water outside Also present in the cells of these fishes are a family of methylamine compounds, largely trimethylamine N-oxide with some betaine and sarcosine, and certain free amino acids, mainly beta-alanine and taurine, whose total concentration is approx. 0.2m. These methylamine compounds and amino acids have been found to be effective stabilizers of protein structure, and, at a 1:2 molar concentration ratio of these compounds to ureaHow sharks replenish fluids with urea when they are fasting?through their gills retain urea so that their bodies are at the same salt concentration as the salt water outside. This is called osmotic balance, and without it, sharks would lose or gain water to the ocean and die.Chondrichthyes characteristicsCartilaginous fishes - endoskeleton made of cartilage strengthened with calcified granules --Have jaws and paired fins (stiff) --No lungs or swim bladder -must keep swimming to keep from sinkingviviparousproducing living young (not eggs)Oviparousegg layingMechanoreceptionlateral lines, ability of an animal to detect and respond to certain kinds of stimuli in its environmenthow do vertebrates eliminate nitrogenous wastes? urea, ornithine, ureotelicurea, ornithine, ureotelicdiphycercal tailA tail that tapers to a point, as in lungfishes, vertebral column extends to tip without upturning.homocercal tailA tail with the upper and lower lobes symmetrical and the vertebral column ending near the middle of the base, as in most telost fishes.heterocercal tailIn some fishes, a tail with the upper lobe larger than the lower, and the end of the vertebral column somewhat upturned in the upper lobe, as in sharksceretitrichiaslender filaments that run along the fin baseisomolal fishosmotic equilibrium with sea water, hagfishhypomolal fishlower solute concentration than the surrounding water, lampreyshypermolal fishhigher solute concentration than the surrounding water, cartilaginous fishNephrons (functional unit of kidney)The tubular excretory unit of the vertebrate kidney.chordate tissue typesepithelial, connective, cartilage, blood, nervous, muscularcranial skeleton of vertebrateschondrocranium- surrounds brain splanchnocranium- gill support dermatocranium- skin surrounding craniumhaikouichthys and myllokinmingiaearliest fossils of ostracoderms
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anatomy and physiology
Match the most related term with the description: Water movement between ECF and ICF
c. fluid compartments
d. fluid balance
e. hypertonic blood plasma
h. plasma, interstitial fluid
j. fluid shift
Show how to alter your relation schemas for the movie example:
Movie(title, year, length, genre, studioName, producerC#) StarsIn(movieTitle, movieYear, starName) MovieStar (name, address, gender, birthdate) MovieExec (name, address, cert#, netWorth) Studio (name, address, presC#)
in the following ways.
- Make title and year the key for Movie.
- Require the referential integrity constraint that the producer of every movie appear in MovieExec.
- Require that no movie length be less than 60 nor greater than 250.
- Require that no name appear as both a movie star and movie executive (this constraint need not be maintained in the face of deletions).
- Require that no two studios have the same address.
Which of the following would cause a decrease in the cell potential?
Which of the following would cause a decrease in the cell potential?
(i) Adding NH3 to the cathode compartment. (ii) Adding NH3 to the anode compartment. (iii) Adding NaNO3 to the anode compartment.
a) i only.
b) i and iii.
c) iii only.
d) i, ii, and iii.
e) None of these.
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