Upgrade to remove ads
SGU LAS: Midterm Set 2
Terms in this set (92)
What are some conservative treatment options for joint disease?
electric stimulation and acupuncture.
What are some intra-articular treatments for joint disease?
IL-1 receptor antagonist protein.
What are some neutroceutical systemic treatments for joint disease?
What are the most commonly used NSAIDs in horses?
flunixin meglumine (banamine).
Which of the NSAIDs used in horses are non-selective COX inhibitors?
Which of the NSAIDs used in horses are COX-2 selective inhibitors?
What are some side effects of using NSAIDs in horses?
GI ulcerations: gastric ulcers, right dorsal colitis, oral ulcers.
nephropathy (COX 2 worse)
PSGAGs are made from _____
bovine lung/trachea with chondroitin sulfate.
**has chondroprotective effects
What is pentosan polysulfate made from?
What are the effects of hyaluronan (Legend)?
analgesic effect: decrease nerve ending sensitivity
Bisphosphonates are particularly good for what problem?
navicular disease and thoracolumbar problems.
*inhibits osteoclast activity
What are the effects of intra-articular injection of corticosteroids?
limits capillary dilation.
depresses inflammatory cells.
Which corticosteroid would you use in a low motion joint (ex: pastern joint)?
**long duration of action
Which corticosteroid would you use in a high motion joint (ex: fetlock or coffin joint)?
What is IRAP?
IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Protein.
anti-inflammatory treatment with body's own enzymes...less chance of infection
What are stem cell collection sites in the horse?
What surgeries can be done to help with joint disease?
arthroscopy with microfracture.
arthrodesis and facilitated ankylosis
How does articular grafting work?
remove non-weight bearing cartilage --> in vitro expansion of chondrocytes --> implant chondrocytes during second procedure
What is considered an end-stage joint?
cannot be managed with routine measures.
life threatening loss or use/laminitis.
ankylosis: immobilization through bony fusion
What are some treatment options for ankylosis in low-motion joints?
What are the 4 high motion joints of the legs?
What structure connect muscle to bone?
**note: ligaments connect bone to bone or bone to tendon
A bowed tendon due to excessive loading is almost always which one?
superficial digital flexor
Which views should you looks at on ultrasound of tendons?
cross sectional and longitudinal
What are down-sides to using ultrasound for diagnoses of tendon issues?
artifacts are easy to create.
insensitive for small tears within the digital sheath
What are treatment options after the acute phase of tendon bowing?
intralesional therapy: regenerative, steroids, bapten/A cell.
extracorporeal shock wave therapy.
What are surgical treatment options for tendon bowing?
proximal accessory ligament desmotomy.
tenoscopy to debride and diagnose.
palmar annular ligament desmotomy
What is the goal of surgery for tendon bowing?
During rehab/recovery from tendon bowing, how long until the horse can go back to full work?
Which has better prognosis...suspensory desmitis in front or hind limb?
forelimb better prognosis
Is hind proximal suspensory desmitis a sudden, acute onset or chronic, slow onset?
chronic and slow
What nerve is blocked for diagnostic analgesia when diagnosing hind proximal suspensory desmitis?
deep branch lateral plantar nerve
What can you see on radiograph in a patient with tendon bowing?
bone remodeling in the area of injury
Suspensory branch and body desmitis is more commonly seen in what type of horse?
What is the primary clinical sign of a horse with progressive degenerative suspensory desmitis?
Which of the tendons are more prone to injury by laceration?
extensor tendons: common digital and long digital
True/False: even if all SDFT, DDFT and suspensory are ruptured, the prognosis is still good
false - should be discussing euthanasia
What suture patterns can be used for suture tendons?
3 loop pulley
What could cause suspensory apparatus breakdown?
acute catastrophic injury.
fracture both sesamoids.
distal sesamoidean ligaments rupture.
suspensory and branches rupture
What are your initial goals when assessing fracture?
minimized additional damage.
have a plan ready
When deciding prognosis with fractures, an open fracture makes prognosis drop by ___%
What sedatives might you use for a horse with a fracture to help ease of initial treatment and transportation?
xylazine and/or detomidine.
What ointment can you use for wound management in horses?
What are some important things to remember when stabilizing a fracture?
immobilize joint above and below the fracture.
do not end near fracture line or mid-diaphysis.
include the hoof when possible.
need horse to be able to bear some weight for transport
What type of splints can be used on the front limb to stabilize phalangeal and condylar fractures?
dorsal splint or Kimzey splint (for toe)
How should fractures of the metacarpal/metatarsal III be stabilized?
front: full limb Robert Jones with caudal and lateral splints.
hind: calcaneus supports caudal and lateral splint
What is the protocol for an incomplete, nondisplaced radial/tibial fracture?
cross-tie in stall for 8 weeks then 8 weeks free in stall
What is the protocol for a complete/displaced radial or tibial fracture?
full limb bandage.
splint laterally from ground to top of scapula/hip.
caudal splint to elbow on forelimb
What makes tibial fractures difficult to immobilize?
True/False: olecranon fractures have a favorable prognosis
true - with internal fixation
What is protocol for stabilizing olecranon fractures?
full limb bandage with caudal splint (lock carpus in extension)
True/False: with humerus and femur fractures, immobilization is not necessary
What will be seen with humeral fracture?
dropped elbow b/c triceps is disrupted
How would you position a horse in the trailor for transport if it has a fractured forelimb?
place facing backward.
small space with head loose to help with balance.
What type of long bone fractures can be managed with medical treatment?
incomplete (able to bear weight).
not very painful.
What is considered conservative management for long bone fractures?
What might you use a cast for?
some distal limb fractures.
severe tendon injuries.
What would you use a transfixation cast for?
comminuted phalangeal fracture
What are some guidelines for where to put a cast?
include the hoof and the joint above and below the fracture
Which bones are not suitable for surgical fixation?
What are the 3 types of screws that might be used for fixation of fractures?
Screws can be used for what types of fractures?
3rd carpal fracture.
What are advantages of internal fixation?
immediately allows weight bearing.
minimized delayed and non union.
preserve ST with minimally invasive approaches.
improved equipment allows stronger repair
Which has higher infection rates...internal or external fixation
What is "low ring bone"?
osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint
What is the treatment protocol for low ring bone?
ice after work.
PSGAGs systemic or intra-articular.
True/False: distal interphalangeal joint injections will diffuse into the navicular bursa
note: the reverse is not consistently true
What is "high ringbone"?
DJD of proximal interphalangeal joint
What types of horses tend to get high ringbone?
What are treatments for high ringbone?
systemic and intra-articular therapy.
surgery to ankylose or arthrodese the joint
What causes dorsal sub/luxation of the proximal interphalangeal joint?
contracture of distal sesamoidians
What causes palmar sub/luxation of the proximal interphalangeal joint?
rupture/failure of distal sesamoidians.
SDFT insertion trauma
P2 fractures are common in what type of horse?
What is the treatment for P2 fracture?
What are treatments for synovitis of the metacarpal phalangeal joint?
anti-inflammatories systemically and intra-articular.
When would you perform fetlock arthrodesis?
catastrophic breakdown of suspensory apparatus.
severe flexural deformities
What is the most common osteochondral fragment/fracture associated with the MCP joint?
dorsomedial proximal P1 fracture
What is the gold standard treatment for osteochondral fracture/fragment?
What is the most common proximal sesamoid fracture?
What are surgical treatment options for proximal sesamoid fractures?
surgical: arthroscopic removal, internal fixation, arthrodesis
What is the most common location for OCD in the front leg?
dorsal mid sagittal ridge
Palmar digital neurectomy is a treatment option for what problems?
chronic foot lameness: navicular, collateral ligament desmitis.
some P3 fractures
When is palmar digital neurectomy contraindicated?
What are some concerns/complications with palmar digital neurectomy?
rupture DDFT/subluxation of DIP.
cut V/A, into sheath.
management of hoof.
only symptomatic releif
What is laminitis?
inflammation and necrosis of laminae and ST that attach the hoof to the bone
What are some endotoxemia conditions that may lead to laminitis?
GI: colitis, enteritis, grain overload, peritonitis.
endometritis - retained placenta
What are some endocrine disorders that can lead to laminitis?
True/False: laminitis is irreversible once in the chronic phase
What are treatments for acute cases of laminitis?
treat underlying cause/disease.
limit progression: cryotherapy, frog support, heel elevation (decrease pull on DDFT).
analgesia and added comfort
How does cryotherapy help treat laminitis?
slows metabolic rate of cell to increase survival/decrease necrosis.
decrease enzymatic activity of pro-inflammatory mediators.
vasoconstriction: decrease delivery of triggers.
lowers internal hoof temp
What medications can be used to relieve pain in cases of laminitis?
CRI drugs: ketamine, lidocaine, morphine.
**also use deep bedding for added comfort
What are treatments for chronic phase laminitis?
therapeutic shoeing/trimming: realigns P3 with ground and decreases pressure on dorsal wall.
hoof wall resection: drainage, increase blood flow/decrease pressure.
tenotomy of DDFT: eliminates pull on P3
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
SGU LAS: Midterm Set 1
SGU LAS: Midterm Set 3
SGU LAS: Quiz Set 1
SGU LAS: Quiz Set 2
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
ch 8 - part 2
Joints - Part 2!
quiz 5 joints
chapter 8.5 molduler Anatomy
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
SGU LAS: Final Set 3
SGU LAS: Final Set 2
SGU LAS: Final Set 1
SGU DI: Final Set 2