adolescence - egocentrism and piaget
Cindy Brown - ED-D 406 UVic
Terms in this set (66)
Name the three levels of adolescent egocentrism by Elkind
Imaginary audience, personal fable, optimistic bias
describe imaginary audience
belief that others are as interested in them as they are of themselves - key words - everyone; all of their friends;
describe personal fable
sense of uniqueness - no one understands how they feel
describe optimistic bias
idea related to personal fable - invincibility, superman syndrome, idea that bad things happen to others more likely than to themselves
If I went on the pill, everyone would know that I was planning on having sex - lable this with Elkind
Label this with Elkind - I dont think a girl like me could get pregnant
optimistic bias and personal fable
Label with Elkind - If I use birth contorl everyone will think I am a slut
imaginary audience and personal fable
Label with Elkind - Nothing will happen to me if its the first time
optimistic bias and misinformation, personal fable
Label with Elkind - Everyone will see me buying condoms
Label with Elkind - He would have laughed at me if I had stopped in the middle to use contraceptives
personal fable, imaginary audience, misinformation
Label with Elkind - If I pulled out a condom it would totally look like I "do" lots of people
label with Elkind - I heard that you couldnt get a girl pregnant when you were stoned because THC lowers sperm count
label with Elkind - I dont think that I have sex often enough
label with Elkind - If I asked him to use a condom, he would have told all of his friends, then everyone in school would know that I am having sex
One of the factors Piaget studied was the learners need for order - what is this called?
Equilibration - the drive for equilibrium - state of balance - Piaget's theory of cognitive development
instinctive or innate need in people to find order, structure, and predictability in their existence. Innate need to make sense of the world
What are schemas?
knowledge, procedures and relationships that we use to understand and function in the world - in response to the need for equilibrium
As we acquire experiences, our existing schema becomes inadequate.. what happens then?
we are forced to adapt - adaptation
the process of adjusting our schema and experiences to each other in order to maintain a state of equilibrium
What to processes does adaptation require
Assimilation and accomodation
an experience in the environment is incorporated into an existing schema
an existing schema is changed in response to new experiences - IE - looking at a black animal and realizing it is not a dog but a bear - the bear is not a dog
what combines together to promote the cognitive development in the child
process of assimilation and accomodation together with the drive for equilibrium
List Piaget's stages of cognitive development
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
In Piaget - everything to the mouth - see how things work - no object permance - peek a boo - object permanence comes at end of stage - what stage is this?
sensorimotor - birth to 2 years
In Piaget - identify symbols - cant give more than one characteristic to an object at a time - what stage is this? - thinking remains eogcentric and self-centered
preoperational - 2-7 years
In Piaget - humor becomes more firmly intrenched - concrete thinkers - things are here and now very difficult time moving beyond - ability to think logically - use of operations that are reversible - abstract thinking not possible - what stage is this?
concrete - 7-11 years
In Piaget - abstractly - logical - scientist - look at many variable - abstract and purely symboolic thinking possible - able to use systematic experiments - what stage is this
formal operational - 11 years to adulthood
What is the difference between concrete and formal operational stages
concrete doesnt always think through results
Which stage has conservation - preoperational or concrete?
Concrete - preoperational has a lack of conservatoin - amount of object changes if reshaped or rearranged
Which stage has irreversibility - preoperatoinal or concrete
Preoperational - children dont recognize certain processes can be undone
At what stage can children reason about transformations?
Concrete - in preoperational they focus on static situations - difficulty thinking aobut change processes
When does egocentrism change?
Concrete - recognize that others see things differently than they do
When can children use multiple classifications?
What stage uses transductivve reasoning
preoperational - reason by combining unrelated facts - infer a cause-effect relationship simply because two events occur together in time and space
what stage uses deductive reasoning
Concrete - can draw a logical inference from two or more pieces of info
A student tells a story without considering what prior knowledge the listerner is likely to have - what stage is this?
preoperational - egocentrism
A student asserts that two rows of five pennies have the same number regardless of spacing - what stage is this
concrete - conservation
Student doesnt recognize that the row of five pennies made longer can be shortened back to its original length - what stage is this?
preoperational - irreversibility
A student understands that a caterpillar becomes a butterfly through the process of metamorphosis - what stage is this?
concrete - ability to reason about transformations
a student denies that a mother can also be a doctor - what stage is this
preoperational - single classification
a student believes that clouds make athe moon grow - what stage is this
preoperational - transductive reasoning
a student has difficulty with the concept of negative numbers, wondering how something can possibly be less than zero - what stage is this?
concrete - dependance on concrete reality
when asked what makes a pendulum swing faster or slower, a student says that weight, length, and strength of the initial push are all possible explanations - what stage is this?
formal - formulation and testing of multiple hypothesis
In testing possible factors influencing the oscillation rate of a pendulum, a student adds more weight to the pendulum while at the same time also shortening the length of the pendulum - what stage is this
Concrete - inability to separate and control variables
Katie is asked, "Do you have a brother?" She says Yes, then she is asked does he have a sister - she answers no - what stage is this?
Rays says "A fly is like both insect and birds. It's like birds because it flies, but it's like insect because it has six legs" - what stage is this?
Time is working on analogies. He declares "Biking is to pedaling as riding in a car it is to stepping on a gas pedal because they both make the vehicle go" - what stage is this
formal - KEY WORD - analogies
Bobby stages, " I understand how this nickel and those five pennies are the same as this dime" - what stage is this
The teacher asks Bill, How can the scale be brought back into balance? Bill replies The only way to do that is to remove the weight that made one pan sink lower than the other - what stage is this
The teacher asks mary - How can the sacle be brought back into balance? mary replies, There are probably several options. I can add more weight on on e side or I can take the weight off both sides - what stage is this
What stage must be achieved to successfully complete - designing an experiment to measure the effects of exercise on heart rate
Formal - controls variables
What stage must be achieved to successfully complete - converting fractions to decimals
Formal - starts at end of concrete
What stage must be achieved to successfully complete - ranking classmates according to height
What stage must be achieved to successfully complete - solving a series of multiplication and division problems
concrete - reversibility
What stage must be achieved to successfully complete - understanding the process of metamorphosis
What stage must be achieved to successfully complete - categorizing items based on shape, size and color
What stage must be achieved to successfully complete - explaining the broad meaning of proverbs
Piaget's contributions transformed the field of developmental psychology by (1)
emphasizing the ACTIVE, CONSTRUCTIVE nature of children
Piaget's contributions transformed the field of developmental psychology by (2)
characterizing the INTRINSIC, MOTIVATION of cognitive behavior
Piaget's contributions transformed the field of developmental psychology by (3)
arguing that all significant intellectual advances are made through an EQUILIBRATION process
Piaget's contributions transformed the field of developmental psychology by (4)
providing the STRUCTURE for adaptation
The criticisms of Piaget are (1)
OVERESTIMATED COGNITIVE ABILITIES OF ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS - children develop at their own rate - some may resort to sensorimotor-like thinking when encountering novel tasks
The criticisms of Piaget are (2)
UNDERESTIMATING YOUNG CHILDREN'S COGNITIVE COMPETENCIES - children may cognition in areas that they already know and have achieved some expertise
The criticisms of Piaget are (3)
DRAMATIC CHANGES IN PIAGETIAN STAGES CHALLENGED - suggested - DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS RATHER THAN DISCONTINUOUS STAGES - cognitive differences may be based on knowledge - rather than the fundamentally different intellectual processes inherent in the stages
The criticisms of Piaget are (4)
CULTURAL AND FORMAL OPERATIONS - adolescents and adults of developing countries did not use or develop formal operational thought - culturally specific forms of formal operational thought are not captured by academic measures