Intro Sociology Exam #2
Terms in this set (34)
process in which people act and react in relation to others.
the patterns f social relationships and social institutions that make up society (guides human behavior rather than determines it; creates, reconstructs, and remains society)
social position that an individual occupies (intersectional approach-many different statuses)
determined from birth; involuntary; assumes later in life
ex: gender, ethnicity, disability,/illness, class, sexual orientation
social position someone assumes voluntary and is a reflection of personal ability and efforts.
ex: occupation, educational level, partnership status, membership (community, Greek life)
*How society sees you, not how you see yourself.
status that has special importance for social identity often shaping a person's entire life.
ex: gender, race, sexuality, physical disability
*How society sees you, not how you see yourself.
expected behavior associated with a particular status
roles associated with ones status conflict with roles of another status.
ex: working mom, employee/student, family/student.
conflict of roles within or associated with one status
ex) study vs. reading vs. paper, parents (fun and friend, but also disciplinary), coach vs teacher
established organization with a particular and recognized purpose.
ex: family, education, media, religion, government/state, healthcare, economy
the social structural hierarchical position groups hold relative to the economic, social, political, and cultural resources of society.
-determines the different access groups and individuals have to these resources and puts groups in different positions of advantages and disadvantages.
-is a social force/social structure (guide and shape human behavior)
-is a social identity
-is a system of inequality
-is a social constuct
the process by which different statuses develop in any group, organization, or society; sports
relatively fixed, hierarchical, arrangement in society by which groups have different access to resources, power, and perceived social worth (system of inequality); sports: some players have higher salary, owners are resources for control
Socioeconomic status (SES)
derived from income, occupational prestige, and education
wages/salary from work and earnings, and investments (US has more income inequalities than most industrialized countries)
total amount of money in other assets minus outstanding debt (distributed even less equally than income in the US)
commonly evaluate each other on what they do. high=doctor, lawyer; low=fast food workers, ditch digger
effects both occupation and income
-Owns major share of cooperate and personal wealth
-includes held wealth for generations as well as recently rich
-best predictor of future wealth is family you are born into
-includes less than 1% of US population
-lower upper -class ="working rich" primary source of income is earnings rather than inheritance.
-"nouveau riche" in upper class with newly required rich
-hard to define because it is a socially constructed
-many citizens identify themselves as middle class
-purposefully construct as majority
-upper middle class is actually the middle class because this is what we aspire to
-great variance within this class
-majority are women and children
-feminization of poverty: trend that women are increasingly portion of the poor
-less educated people, homeless, disproportionate number of minorities (majority of poor are white)
-racially diverse, vary by age, geographical diversity (growth in poverty in suburban areas)
-20-30% of poor live in rural areas
-focus is on urban areas for poor.
less privileged (people of color) don't have voice to say no to dumps, etc. near their homes.
"not in my backyard"
International Labor Organization (ILO) definition:
work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential, and their dignity, and that is harmful to mental and physical development. (western dictated definition; have to look at it from sociohistorical context; some children's work is the only income for their family)
-ILO 250 million children trapped in child labor; 50% in dangerous work, perhaps slavery
babysitting, mowing lawn
the systematic inequalities between and among different groups within nations that result from the differences in wealth, power, and prestige of different societies relative to their position in the international economy
-Has to do with child labor; less prestige=higher child labor, less laws about child labor
-Data on child labor=global systems of work are deeply connected to inequality
usually women of color, women in migration process around the world.
a person's or group's ability to exercise influence and control over others.
-on micro and macro level
-significant dimension of global stratification.
-Highly influenced by functionalist theory of social change
-Global development is world wide process including all societies effected by technological change.
-traces beginnings of globalization to technological advances in the WEST (less developed countries have not adopted these modernization)
-Developed after WW2 to find out "Why are 3rd world countries still the 3rd world?" Anything traditional=3rd world countries
-Explains 3rd world problems because of internal problems.
-3rd world based on traditional beliefs which inhibited development (belief of this theory)
-3rd world countries internalize and believe this
-Taloh Parsons, Niel Smelser, Rostow leaders of this thoery
-Rostow=take off theory---> all countries like airplanes. 3rd world countries have not reached take off, but once they do they will catch up quickly.
-All people move linearly in sector
-Developed in response to Modernization theory
-highly industrialized countries imprison developing natiosn in dependent relationships
-Influence from Karl Marks
-Major theorists= Gunder Frank, Baran, Rodney, Cardoso
-Uses Latin America as basis
-Argument=West underdeveloped the Global South
-Gundar Frank=book; Latin america was doing fine, then the west came along and underdeveloped them
-Rodney= "How Europe underdeveloped Africa"
-2nd Argument= metorpole/core=U.S, Western Europe; satellite=3rd world countries (relationship between these two=west does exploiting--->unequal trade between these two
World Systems Theory
-Peripheral= 3rd world countries (contribute to wealth of core nations; provides raw materials and labor to the core)
-Semi-peripheral: a little more development (Mexico, Brazil)
-Wallenstine is theorist behind this
-Argues all nations are members of a worldwide system of unequal political and economic relationships that benefit the core nations
-Advancement of Dependency Theory
-Basis is the world economy
-Refer to it as globalization
-Core and peripheral very fluid-can drop and go up in small amounts of time.
Gender inequality index
measure of status of women globally created by the United Nations
-3 components of women's live: reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market status.
-Reproductive health of lack there of is greatest contributor to gender inequality around the world. (according to index)
premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by people or groups who use their action to try and achieve their political ends.
in social class, process which people end up in a given position in the stratification system; brought by SES which is derived from factors such as income, occupational prestige, and education; higher ed to become dr