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Human Growth: Ch 1
Terms in this set (56)
The pattern of movement or change that starts at conception and continues through the human life span.
Life- Span Perspective
The perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual ; involves growth, maintenance, and regulation; and is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together.
The setting in which development occurs that is influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors.
Normative age-graded influence
Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group.
Normative history-graded influences
Biological and environmental influences that are associated with history. These influences are common to people of a particular generation.
Nonnormative life events
Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a person's life. The occurrence, pattern, and sequence of these events are not applicable to many individuals.
The behavior patterns, beliefs,, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation.
Comparisons of one culture with one or more other cultures. These provide information about the degree to which children's development is similar, or universal, across cultures, and to which it is culture-specific.
A range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage, including nationality, race, religion, and language.
Socioeconomic status (SES)
Refers to the conceptual grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
The psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being male or female.
A national government's course or action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.
Changes in an individual's physical nature.
Changes in and individual's thought, intelligence, and language.
Changes in an individual's relationships with other people, emotions, and personality.
The debate about the extent to which development is influence by nature and by nurture. Nature refers to an organism's biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences.
The debate about the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change.
The debate about the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity).
A coherent set of ideas to explain data and to make predictions.
Assertions or predictions, often derived form theories, that can be tested.
Theories that hold that development depends primarily on the unconscious mind and is heavily couched in emotion, that behavior is merely a surface characteristic, that it is important to analyze the symbolic meanings of behavior, and that early experiences are important in development.
A psychoanalytic theory in which eight stages of phychosocial development unfold through the human life span. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced.
The theory that children construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.
A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.
A theory that emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. The processes of memory and thinking are central.
Behavioral and social cognitive theories
Theories that hold that development can be described in terms of the behaviors learned through interactions with the environment.
Social cognitive theory
The theory that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding development.
An approach that stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
Bronfenbrenner's ethological theory
Bronfenbrenner's environmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems: microsystem, meosystem, exosystem, macrosytstem, and chronosystem.
The setting in which the individual lives.
Involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts.
Consists of a link between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context.
Involves the culture in which individuals live.
Consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances.
Eclectic theoretical orientation
An approach that selects and uses whatever is considered the best in many theories.
A controlled setting.
Observation that occurs in a real-world setting without an attempt to manipulate the situation.
A test that is given with uniform procedures for administration and scoring.
An in-depth examination of an individual.
This type of research aims to observe and record behavior.
The goal is to describe the strength of the relation between two or more events or characteristics.
A number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables.
A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied is manipulated and all other factors are held constant. Experimental research permits the determination of cause.
A research strategy in which individual's of different ages are compared at one time.
A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more.
Effects that are due to a subject's time of birth or generation but not age.
APA's code of ethics
Includes informed consent, confidentiality, debriefing, and deception.
Psychoanalytic theorist who developed psychoanalysis in which his patients talked about their problems and he listened, probed, and analyzed. he came to the conclusion that their problem resulted from experiences in early life. He believed there are five stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
Psychoanalytic theorist who developed the 8 stages of psychosocial development.
Cognitive theorist who developed the cognitive developmental theory that children go through four stages of cognitive development which are: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
Cognitive theorist who developed the sociocultural theory that emphasizes how social and cultural interaction guide cognitive development. Nurture.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner
Behavioral and social cognitive theorist who held that through operant conditioning the consequences of a behavior can change the likelihood of the recurrence of that behavior. A behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus is more likely to recur, a behavior followed by a punishment it is less likely recur.
Behavioral and social cognitive theorist who developed the social cognitive theory that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are the key factors in development. It included observational learning.
Stressed that attachment to a caregiver over the first year has important consequences throughout the life span.
Did an experiment with geese and found what he called imprinting which is the rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving objects seen.
His ecological theory held that development reflects the influence of several environmental systems: microsystem (setting in which the individual lives), meosystem (relations between microsystems or connection between contexts), exosystem (social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context), macrosystem (involves the culture in which the individual lives), chronosystem (consists of patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances).
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