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circumcised area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma

Absorption atelectasis

removal of air from obstructed or hypoventilated alveoli

Acute bronchitis

inflammation of the airways or bronchi and is usually self-limiting

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

A condition in which capillaries or alveoli of the lungs are damaged from infection, injury, blood loss, or inhalation injury causing fluid to leak from the capillaries into the alveoli to collapse


tumor arising from glands

Alveolar dead space

an area where alveoli are ventilated but not perfused


removal of gas or fluid by suction or the sucking of fluid or a foreign body into the airway when breathing


chronic inflammatory respiratory disease marked by periodic attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, a tight feeling in the chest, and a cough that produces mucous caused by an allergic reaction


part of the lung or a whole lung collapses


bronchi of the lungs become dilated in response to obstruction


inflammation of the bronchioles usually as a result of viral infection

Bronchiolitis obliterans

bronchioles and possible some of the bronchi are partly or completely obliterated by graulation and fibrotic tissue


process of the abscess emptying into a bronchus and cavity formation

Centriacinar emphysema

destruction/distention respiratory bronchioles upper lobe in smokers

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

abnormal pattern of breathing in which the tidal volume gradually increases, then gradually decreases and a period of apnea before normal breathing pattern returns

Chronic bronchitis

a form of bronchitis characterized by excess production of sputum leading to a chronic cough and obstruction of air flow

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Any irreversible respiratory diseases that are characterized by airflow obstruction or limitation


selective bulbous enlargement of the end (distal segment) of a digit (finger or toe)

Compression atelectasis

external pressure exerted by a tumor, fluid, or air in pleural space


inflammation causes the alveoli to fill with fluid, pus, and microorganisms

Cor pulmonale

right-sided heart failure resulting from prolonged hypertension


protective reflex that cleanses the lower airways by an explosive expiration


skin, mucous membranes, and nails are blue


shortness of breath


abnormal permanent enlargement of gas-exchange airways accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis


purulent is persistently discharged into the pleural space because of the complications of bacterial infections

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis

inflammation of the lung caused by an immune reaction to small airborne particles such as bacteria, mold, and fungi

Exudate effusion

high concentrations of white blood cells and plasma proteins

Flial chest

fracture of several consecutive ribs is in more than one place or the fracture of the sternum plus several consecutive ribs


period during which blood or blood-stained sputum is spit or coughed from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs


increased carbon dioxide in the arterial blood caused by hyperventilation of the alveoli


reduces carbon dioxide concentration because of breathing faster or deeper


a state in which the level of carbon dioxide in the blood is lower than normal


ventilation is inadequate for proper gas exchange, increase in carbon dioxide


insufficient oxygen


state in which the oxygen level reaching cells is insufficient, tissue injury

Kussmaul respiration

deep, rapid respiration commonly seen in conditions causing acidosis

Large cell carcinoma

cells are large and contain darkly stained nuclei, can grow to distort the trachea and cause widening of the carina

Laryngeal cancer

increased by the amount of tobacco smoked, combination of smoke and alcohol consumption

Lip cancer

long-term exposure to sun, wind, and cold over a period of time

Lung cancer

bronchogenic carcinomas, arise from the epithelium of the respiratory tract, most common cause of cancer death

Open pneumothorax

air pressure in the pleural space equals barometric pressure


dyspnea when a person is lying down

Oxygen toxicity

severe inflammatory response mediated primarily by oxygen radicals

Panacinar emphysema

damage more randomly and involves lower lobe of the lungs

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

wake up at night gasping for air, may have to sit up or stand to relieve the dyspnea

Pleural effusion

presence of fluid in the pleural space, migration of fluids and other blood components through the walls of intact capillaries bordering the pleura


chronic disease of the lungs, caused by repeated inhalation of dust


inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals


collapse of the lung and escape of air into the pleural cavity

Pulmonary edema

excess water in the lungs

Pulmonary embolism

blood clot dislodges from its site of origin and embolizes to the arterial blood supply of one lung.

Pulmonary fibrosis

scarring of the lungs

Pulmonary hypertension

mean pulmonary artery pressure 5 to 10 mm Hg above normal or above 20 mm Hg

Pulmonary thromboembolism

pulmonary artery or one of its branches os obstructed by a blood clot

Pulsus paradoxus

decrease in systolic blood pressure during inspiration of more then 10 mm Hg


moving oxygenated blood into vital areas and bypassing less vital areas

Small cell carcinoma

15-20% bronchogenic carcinomas, strongest correlation with cigarette smoking

Status asthmaticus

severe bronchospasm

Tension pneumothorax

site of pleural rupture acts as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing up during expiration

TNM classification

Staging of non-small cell cancer, T denotes the extent of the primary tumor, N indicates the nodal involvement, and M describes the extent of metastasis

Transudative effusion

watery pleural effusion


tubercle bacillus that results in the formation of tubercles on the lungs

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