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Chapter 26

STUDY
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Abscess
circumcised area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma
Absorption atelectasis
removal of air from obstructed or hypoventilated alveoli
Acute bronchitis
inflammation of the airways or bronchi and is usually self-limiting
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
A condition in which capillaries or alveoli of the lungs are damaged from infection, injury, blood loss, or inhalation injury causing fluid to leak from the capillaries into the alveoli to collapse
Adenocarcinoma
tumor arising from glands
Alveolar dead space
an area where alveoli are ventilated but not perfused
Aspiration
removal of gas or fluid by suction or the sucking of fluid or a foreign body into the airway when breathing
Asthma
chronic inflammatory respiratory disease marked by periodic attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, a tight feeling in the chest, and a cough that produces mucous caused by an allergic reaction
Atelectasis
part of the lung or a whole lung collapses
Bronchiectasis
bronchi of the lungs become dilated in response to obstruction
Bronchiolitis
inflammation of the bronchioles usually as a result of viral infection
Bronchiolitis obliterans
bronchioles and possible some of the bronchi are partly or completely obliterated by graulation and fibrotic tissue
Cavitation
process of the abscess emptying into a bronchus and cavity formation
Centriacinar emphysema
destruction/distention respiratory bronchioles upper lobe in smokers
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
abnormal pattern of breathing in which the tidal volume gradually increases, then gradually decreases and a period of apnea before normal breathing pattern returns
Chronic bronchitis
a form of bronchitis characterized by excess production of sputum leading to a chronic cough and obstruction of air flow
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Any irreversible respiratory diseases that are characterized by airflow obstruction or limitation
Clubbing
selective bulbous enlargement of the end (distal segment) of a digit (finger or toe)
Compression atelectasis
external pressure exerted by a tumor, fluid, or air in pleural space
Consolidation
inflammation causes the alveoli to fill with fluid, pus, and microorganisms
Cor pulmonale
right-sided heart failure resulting from prolonged hypertension
Cough
protective reflex that cleanses the lower airways by an explosive expiration
Cyanosis
skin, mucous membranes, and nails are blue
Dyspnea
shortness of breath
Emphysema
abnormal permanent enlargement of gas-exchange airways accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis
Empyema
purulent is persistently discharged into the pleural space because of the complications of bacterial infections
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis
inflammation of the lung caused by an immune reaction to small airborne particles such as bacteria, mold, and fungi
Exudate effusion
high concentrations of white blood cells and plasma proteins
Flial chest
fracture of several consecutive ribs is in more than one place or the fracture of the sternum plus several consecutive ribs
Hemoptysis
period during which blood or blood-stained sputum is spit or coughed from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs
Hypercapnia
increased carbon dioxide in the arterial blood caused by hyperventilation of the alveoli
Hyperventilation
reduces carbon dioxide concentration because of breathing faster or deeper
Hypocapnia
a state in which the level of carbon dioxide in the blood is lower than normal
Hypoventilation
ventilation is inadequate for proper gas exchange, increase in carbon dioxide
Hypoxemia
insufficient oxygen
Hypoxia
state in which the oxygen level reaching cells is insufficient, tissue injury
Kussmaul respiration
deep, rapid respiration commonly seen in conditions causing acidosis
Large cell carcinoma
cells are large and contain darkly stained nuclei, can grow to distort the trachea and cause widening of the carina
Laryngeal cancer
increased by the amount of tobacco smoked, combination of smoke and alcohol consumption
Lip cancer
long-term exposure to sun, wind, and cold over a period of time
Lung cancer
bronchogenic carcinomas, arise from the epithelium of the respiratory tract, most common cause of cancer death
Open pneumothorax
air pressure in the pleural space equals barometric pressure
Orthopnea
dyspnea when a person is lying down
Oxygen toxicity
severe inflammatory response mediated primarily by oxygen radicals
Panacinar emphysema
damage more randomly and involves lower lobe of the lungs
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
wake up at night gasping for air, may have to sit up or stand to relieve the dyspnea
Pleural effusion
presence of fluid in the pleural space, migration of fluids and other blood components through the walls of intact capillaries bordering the pleura
Pneumoconiosis
chronic disease of the lungs, caused by repeated inhalation of dust
Pneumonia
inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals
Pneumothorax
collapse of the lung and escape of air into the pleural cavity
Pulmonary edema
excess water in the lungs
Pulmonary embolism
blood clot dislodges from its site of origin and embolizes to the arterial blood supply of one lung.
Pulmonary fibrosis
scarring of the lungs
Pulmonary hypertension
mean pulmonary artery pressure 5 to 10 mm Hg above normal or above 20 mm Hg
Pulmonary thromboembolism
pulmonary artery or one of its branches os obstructed by a blood clot
Pulsus paradoxus
decrease in systolic blood pressure during inspiration of more then 10 mm Hg
Shunting
moving oxygenated blood into vital areas and bypassing less vital areas
Small cell carcinoma
15-20% bronchogenic carcinomas, strongest correlation with cigarette smoking
Status asthmaticus
severe bronchospasm
Tension pneumothorax
site of pleural rupture acts as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing up during expiration
TNM classification
Staging of non-small cell cancer, T denotes the extent of the primary tumor, N indicates the nodal involvement, and M describes the extent of metastasis
Transudative effusion
watery pleural effusion
Tuberculosis
tubercle bacillus that results in the formation of tubercles on the lungs