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AP Psychology Unit 13 Flashcards
by Jacqueline Chau
Terms in this set (79)
Introduction to Therapy, Psychodynamic and Humanistic Therapies (module heading)
Introduction to Therapy (heading)
How do psychotherapy, biomedical therapy, and an eclectic approach to therapy differ?
- Today's therapies are classified as psychotherapy or biomedical therapy.
- Many therapists combine techniques. Many even describe themselves as taking an eclectic approach.
- "talk therapies" are psychoanalysis and psychodyanamic
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.
prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person's physiology.
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences- and the therapist's interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapy (heading)
What are the goals and techniques of psychoanalysis, and how have they been adapted in psychodynamic therapy?
- Few clinicians today practice therapy as Freud did.
- Psychoanalytic theory presumes that healthier, less anxious living becomes possible when people release the energy they had previously devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts.
- Psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the formative power of childhood experiences and their ability to mold the adult.
- When there is resistance, they hint that anxiety lurks and you are defending against sensitive material. Transferring may also occur. Relatively few U.S. therapists now offer traditional psychoanalysis. Much of its theory is not supported by scientific research. The therapy may take years of several sessions a week.
- Therapists who use psychodynamic theory don't talk much about the id, ego, and superego. They try to help people understand their current symptoms. The meetings may only take a couple of months. Psychdynamic theories may help patients explore and gain perspective into defended-against thoughts and feelings (the man who couldn't say ILY to his wife) or may help reveal past relationship troubles as the origin of current difficulties.
- Interpersonal psychotherapy, a brief variation of psychodynamic therapy, has effectively treated depression. Its goal is to concentrate on current relationships and on helping people improve their relationship skills.
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
in psychoanaylsis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight.
Humanistic Therapies (heading)
What are the basic themes of humanistic therapy? What are the specific goals and techniques of Rogers' client-centered approach?
- The humanistic perspective has emphasized people's inherent potential for self-fulfullment. Humanistic therapy differs from psychoanalytic therapy in many other ways: humanistic therapy aims to boost people's self-fulfilment by helping them grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance, promoting this growth not curing illness, and conscious thoughts are more important than the unconscious.
- Carl Rogers developed client-centered therapy. In this nondirective way, the therapist listens, without judging or interpreting, and seeks to refrain from directing the client toward certain insights. Involves active listening. The counselor listens attentively and interrupts only to restate and confirm feelings, to accept what is being expressed, or to seek clarification. Rogers believed that the therapist's most important contribution is to accept and understand the client. Given a nonjudgmental, grace-filled environment that provides unconditional positive regard, people may accept even their worst traits and feel valued and whole. He encouraged acceptance, genuineness, and empathy (AGE).
a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person's awareness of underlying motives and defenses. (Psychodynamic and humanistic therapies are insight therapies.)
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
unconditional positive regard
a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance.
Behavior, Cognitive, and Group Therapies (module heading)
Behavior Therapies (heading)
How does the basic assumption of behavior therapy differ from those in psychodynamic and humanistic therapies? What techniques are used in exposure therapies and aversive conditioning?
- Proponents of behavior therapy doubt the healing power of self-awareness. They assume that problem behaviors are the problems, and the application of learning principles can eliminate them.
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
Classical Conditioning Techniques (sub-heading)
- Counterconditioning pairs the trigger stimulus (the enclosed space of the elevator) with a new response (relaxation) that is incompatible with fear.
- Two specific counterconditioning techniques- exposure therapy and aversive conditioning- replace unwanted responses.
- Exposure therapies have patients face their fear, and thus overcome their fear response itself. One widely used exposure therapy is systematic desensitization. Wolpe assumed that you cannot be anxious and relaxed at the same time. Therefore, if you can repeatedly relax when facing anxiety-provoking stimuli, you can gradually eliminate your anxiety.
- Developments in virtual reality therapy suggest the likelihood of increasingly sophisticated simulated worlds in which people, using avatars, try out new behaviors in virtual environments.
- Aversive conditioning is when therapists want to substitue a negative (aversive)response for a positive response to a harmful stimulus (such as alcohol). Thus aversive conditioning is the reverse of systematic desensitization- it seeks to condition an aversion to something the person should avoid. It associates the unwanted behavior with unpleasant feelings. For example, alcohol use disorder, a therapist offers the client appealing drinks laced with a drug that produces severe nausea. Aversive conditioning may work in the short run. The problem is that cognition influencing conditioning. People know that outside the therapist's office they can drink without fear of nausea. Thus, therapists often use aversive conditioning in combination with other treatments.
behavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; include exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid.
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic stimulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol).
Operant Conditioning (sub-heading)
What is the main premise of therapy based on operant conditioning principles, and what are the views of its proponents and critics?
- Today's therapists can practice behavior modification- reinforcing desired behaviors, and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors. Ensuing studies suggested that positive reinforcement without punishment was most effective.
- Rewards used to modify behaviors vary. In institutional setting, therapists may create a token economy.
-Critics questions include; How durable are the behaviors? Will people become so dependent on extrinsic rewards that the appropriate behaviors stop when the reinforcers stop? Is it right for one human to control another's behavior?
- Proponents believe the behaviors will endure if therapists wean patients from tokens to real-life rewards, such as social approval. Treatment with positive rewards is more humane than being institutionalized or punished, advocates argue.
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
Cognitive Therapies (heading)
What are the goals and techniques of cognitive therapy and of cognitive-behavioral therapy?
- Cognitive therapists therefore try in various ways to teach people new, more constructive ways of thinking.
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (heading)
According to Ellis, the creator of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), many problems arise from irrational thinking. Change people's thinking by revealing the absurdity of their self-defeating ideas, and you will change their self-defeating feelings Ellis believed.
rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
a confrontational cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis, that vigorously challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions.
Aaron Beck's Therapy for Depression (heading)
-With cognitive therapy, Aaron Beck has sought to reverse clients' catastophizing beliefs about themselves, their situations, and their futures. Gentle questioning to reveal irrational thinking, and then to persuade people to remove the dark glasses through which they view life.
- There is also stress inoculation training: teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations to more positive attitudes.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (heading)
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) aims not to only alter the way people think, but also to alter the way they act. Behavioral change is typically addressed first. An effective CBT program for those with emotional disorder trains people both to replace their catastrophizing thinking with more realistic appraisals, and, as homework, to practice behaviors that are incompatible with their problem. CBT may also be useful with OCD.
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).
Group and Family Therapies (heading)
What are the aims and benefits of group and family therapy?
Group Therapy (sub-heading)
The benefits include: it saves the therapists' time and clients' money, it offers a social laboratory for exploring social behaviors and developing social skills, it enables people to see that others share their problems, it provides feedback as clients try out new ways of behaving.
therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction.
Family Therapy (sub-heading)
Some of our problem behaviors arise from the tension, which can create family stress. Family therapists work with multiple family members to heal relationships and to mobilize family resources.
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members.
Self-Help Groups (sub-heading)
-Most support groups focus on stigmatized or hard-to-discuss illnesses. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) reduce their drinking sharply using a 12-step program. The more meetings members attend, the greater their alcohol abstinence.
Evaluating Psychotherapies and Prevention Strategies (module heading)
Evaluating Psychotherapies (heading)
Is Psychotherapy Effective? (sub-heading)
Does psychotherapy work? Who decides?
- For several reasons, client testimonials do not persuade pyschotherapy's skeptics: People often enter therapy in crisis (when the crisis passes, people may attribute therapy to their improvement), Clients may need to believe the therapy was worth the effort, Clients generally speak kindly of their therapists.
- The problem with clincians' perceptions is that clients justify entering psychotherapy by emphasizing their unhappiness and justify leaving by emphasizing their well-being. Therapists treasure compliments from clients who say goodbye, but they hear little from clients who experience only temporarily relief and seek out new therapists for their recurring problems.
- For past objective measures of if therapy worked, a lot of the time untreated patients also turned out to become better.
- The results of many such studes are then digested by means of meta-analysis, a statistical procedure that combines the conclusions of a large number of different studies. A study showed that the average therapy client ends up better off than 80 percent of the untreated individuals on the waiting lists. Those not undergoing therapy often improve, but those undergoing therapy are more likely to improve more quickly, and with less risk of relapse.
- Is psychotherapy also cost-effective? YES.
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
The Relative Effectiveness of Different Psychotherapies (sub-heading)
Are some psychotherapies more effective than others for specific disorders?
-The statistical summaries fail to pinpoint any one type of therapy as generally superior. Some forms of therapy works for particular problems, though there is often an overlapping of disorders.
- Therapy is most effective when the problem is clear-cut. Those with less-focused problems, such as depression and anxiety, usually benefit in the short term but often relapse later. The more specific the problem, the greater the hope.
- It's possible for psychological treatments not only to be ineffective but harmful- by making people worse or preventing their getting better.
- to encourage evidence-based practice, the APA have advocated that clincians integrate the best available research with clinical expertise and with patient preferences and characteristics. Increasingly, insurer and government support for mental health services requires evidence-based practice.
clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.
Evaluating Alternative Therapies (heading)
How do alternative therapies fare under scientific scrutiny?
- EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) is a therapy in which the creator, Shapiro, had people imagine traumatic scenes while she triggered eye movements by waving her finger in front of their eyes, supposedly enabling them to unlock and reprocess previously frozen memories. For 84 to 100 percent of single-trauma patients participating in studies have said that it works. The Society of Clinical Psychology acknowledges that EMDR is probably efficacious for the treatment of nonmilitary PTSD.
- During wintertime, people may feel slow. One treatment is to shine some light daily on them. Morning bright light does indeed dim depression symptoms for many of those suffering in a seasonal pattern. Light therapy sparks activity in a brain regions that influences the body's arousal and hormones.
Commonalities Among Psychotherapies (sub-heading)
What three elements are shared by all forms of psychotherapy?
- Three benefits for all therapies: Hope for demoralized people, a new perspective, and an empathic, trusting, caring relationship.
- The emotional bond between therapist and client- the therapeutic alliance- is a key aspect of effective therapy.
a bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and client, who work together constructively to overcome the client's problem.
Culture, Gender, and Values in Psychotherapy (sub-heading)
How do culture, gender, and values, influence the therapist-client relationship?
- Therapists differ from one another and may differ from their clients. These difference can become significant when a therapist from one culture or gender meets a client from another. In Western countries, most therapists reflect their culture's individualism, which may be hard for a client coming from Asia.
-Highly religious people may prefer and benefit from religiously similar therapists.
- Bergin and Ellis agreed that psychotherapists' personal beliefs influence their practice.
Preventing Psychological Disorders (heading)
What is the rationale for preventive mental health programs?
- Faced with unforeseen trauma, most adults exhibit resilience.
- We could interpret many psychological disorders as understandable responses to a disturbing and stressful society.
- Preventative mental health seeks to prevent psychological causalities by identifying and alleviating the conditions that cause them. It is documented that intervention efforts often based on cognitive-behavorial therapy principles significantly boost child and adolescent flourishing.
the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.
The Biomedical Therapies (module heading)
-Primary care providers prescribe most drugs for anxiety and depression.
Drug Therapies (heading)
What are the drug therapies? How do double-blind studies help researchers evaluate a drug's effectiveness?
- By far the most widely used biomedical treatments today are drug therapies. Thanks to drug therapy the resident population of mental hospitals is a small fraction of what it was a half-century ago. In double-blind studies, some drugs have proven useful.
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
Antipsychotic Drugs (sub-heading)
- Antipsychotic drugs dampened responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli. Thus, they provided the most help to patients experiencing positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The molecules of most are antagonists; they are similar enough to molecules of the neurotransmitter dopamine to occupy its receptor sites and block its activity. This reinforces the idea that an overactive dopamine system contributes to schizophrenia. There are also powerful side effects. Long-term effects can produce tardive dyskinesia (involuntary movements of facial muscles or limbs) and obesity/diabetes.
drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder.
Antianxiety Drugs (sub-heading)
-like alcohol, antianxiety drugs depress central nervous system activity. They are often used in combination with psychological therapy.
- one criticism is that they reduce symptoms without resolving underlying problems. They can also be addicting. Dependency on these drugs for stressful situations also can occur.
drugs used to control anxiety and agitation.
drugs used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. (Several widely used antidepressant drugs are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors-SSRIs).
Antidepressant Drugs (sub-heading)
-The antidepressants were named for their ability to lift people up from state of depression, but not these drugs are increasingly being used to successfully treat anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD. These drugs are agonists; they work by increasing the availability of certain neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine or serotonin, which elevate arousal and mood.
- Drugs like Prozac can also treat things other than depression and is most often called SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) rather than an antidepressant.
-Antidepressants take a couple of weeks (usually a month/four weeks) for it to work on patients. One possible reason for the delay is that increased serotonin promotes neurogenesis, perhaps reversing stress-induced loss of neurons.
- things like aerobic exercise does as much good for some people with mild to moderate depression.
- How big is the drug effect? Not much. Many of those who took a placebo felt better. The conclusion was that there seems little reason to prescribe antidepressant medication to any but the most severely depressed patients, unless alternative treatments have failed. For mild or moderate symptoms, aerobic exercise or psychotherapy is often effective. For the very sever depressed, the medication advantage is substantial.
Mood-Stabilizing Medications (sub-heading)
- Mood-stabilizing drugs are for those suffering the emotional highs and lows of bipolar disorder, the simple salt lithium can be an effective mood stabilizer. Lithium also reduces bipolar patients' risk of suicide. Lithium amounts in drinking water have also correlated with lower suicide rates and lower crime rates.
Brain Stimulation (heading)
How are brain stimulation and psychosurgery used in treating specific disorders?
Electroconvulsive Therapy (sub-heading)
-Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was pretty barbaric back in the day. Today, 80 percent or more of people receiving ECT improve markedly, showing some memory loss for the treatment period but no discernible brain damage.
-Study after study confirms that ECT is an effective treatment for severe depression in "treatment-resistant" patients.
-No one knows for sure how ECT alleviates depression. ECT, like antidepressants also appears to boost the production of new brain cells. Skeptics have thought that ECT to be a placebo effect. But it was concluded that ECT is more effective than a placebo, especially in the short run.
- ECT is not administered with briefer pulses, sometimes only to the brain's right side and with less memory disruption. Moreover, 4 in 10 ECT patients relapse into depression within 6 months.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
Alternative Neurostimulation Therapies (sub-heading)
- There are two other neural stimulation techniques - magnetic stimulation and deep-brain stimulation.
- Depressed moods seem to improve when repeated pusles surge through a magnetic coil held close to a person's skill. This procedure is called repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). There are no seizures or memory loss like ECT. Initial studies have found modest positive benefits. One theory says that it works by energizing the brain's left frontal lobe, which is inactive during depression.
- Deep-brain stimulation helps to excite neurons that bridge the thinking frontal lobes to the limbic system and that inhibit this negative emotion-feeding activity.
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
the application of repeated impulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
- Because its effects are irreversible, psychosurgery- surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue- iss the most drastic and the least-used biomedical intervention for changing behavior.
- Egas Moniz developed the lobotomy. It's intention was to cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes with the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain. But a lobotomy's effect was often more drastic: It usually decreased the person's misery or tension, but also produced a permanently immature and uncreative person.
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
a psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (heading)
How, by taking care of themselves with a healthy lifestyle, might people find some relief from depression, and how does this reflect our being biopsychosocial systems?
- As we have seen over and again, a human being is an integrated biopsychosocial system.
-For both children and adults, outdoor activity in natural environments reduces stress and promotes health. Human brains were designed for physical activity and social engagement. There are training seminars promoting therapeutic lifestyle change, which includes aerobic exercise, adequate sleep, light exposure, social connection, antirumination, and nutritional supplements.
His psychoanalysis was the first of the psychological therapies. He assumed that we do not fully know ourselves. His therapy aimed to bring patients' repressed or disowned feelings into conscious awareness. By helping them reclaim their unconscious thoughts and feelings and giving them insight into the origins of their disorders, he aimed to help them reduce growth-impeding inner conflicts.
He developed the widely used humanistic technique he called client-centered therapy.
Mary Cover Jones
In 1924, she did the first form of exposure therapy on a boy named Peter who was afraid of rabbits and other furry objects. Her strategy was to associate the fear-evoking rabbit with the pleasurable, relaxed response associated with eating. So when Peter began his midafternoon snack, Jones introduced a caged rabbit on the other side of the room. On succeeding days, she gradually moved it closer to him till he was even stroking it while he ate.
He refined Jones' technique into what are not the most widely used types of behavior therapies: exposure therapies. He also helped discover systematic desensitization.
He helped us understand the basic concept in operant conditioning that voluntary behaviors are strongly influenced by their consequences. Knowing this, today's therapists can practice behavior modification- reinforcing desired behaviors, and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors.
He created the ration-emotive behavior therapy (REBT). Change people's thinking by revealing the "absurdity" of their self-defeating ideas, the sharp-tongued Ellis believed, and you will change their self-defeating feelings and enable healthier behaviors.
Cognitive therapist that found recurring negative themes of loss, rejection, and abandonment that extended into depressed patients' waking thoughts. He sought to reverse clients' catastrophizing beliefs about themselves. Gentle questioning seeks to reveal irrational thinking.
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