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Muscles of Facial Expressions, Chewing and Swallowing, and Muscles Acting on Head

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Frontalis
Muscle of the front of the head.
Elevates eybrows in glancing upward and expressions of surprise or fright; draws scalp forward and wrinkles skin of forehead.
Origin: Galea Aponeurotica
Insertion: Subcataneous tissue of eyebrows.
Innervation: Facial nerve
Occipitalis
Muscle at the back of the head.
Retracts calp; fixes galea aponeurotica so rontalis can act on eyebrows.
Origin: Superiro nuchal line and temporal bone.
Insertion: Galea aponeurotica.
Innervation: Facial nerve
Orbicularis Oculi
Muscles around the eyes.
Sphincter of the eyelids; closes eye in blinking, squinting and sleep; aids in flow of tears acrsoss eye.
Origin: Lacrimal bone; adjacent regions of frontal bone and maxilla; medial angle of eyelids.
Insertion: Upper and lower eyelids; skin around margin of orbit.
Innervation: Facial nerve
Levator Palpebrae Superioris
Right under eye around cheek.
Elevates upper eyelid; opens eye.
Origin: Lesser wing of sphenoid in posterior wall of orbit.
Insertion: Upper eyelid.
Innervation: Oculomotor nerve
Corrugator Supercilli
Above eye, eyebrow area.
Draws eyebrows medially and downard in frowning and concentration; reduces glare of bright sunlight.
Origin: Medial end of supraorbital margin.
Insertion: Skin of eyebrows.
Innervation: Facial nerve
Nasalis
On nose.
Widens nostrils; narrows internal air passage between vestibule and nasal cavity.
Origin: Maxilla just lateral to nose.
Insertion: Bridge and alar cartilages of nose.
Innervation: Facial nerve
Orbicularis Oris
Right below lower lip.
Encircles mouth, closes lips, protrudes lips as in kissing; uniquely developed in humans for speech.
Origin: Modiolus of mouth.
Insertion: Submucosa and dermis of lips..
Innervation: Facial nerve.
Levator Labii Superioris
Right below eye at cheek.
Elevates and everts upper lip in sad, sneering, or serious expressions.
Origin: Zygomatic bone and maxilla near inferior margin of orbit.
Insetion: Muscels of upper lip.
Innervation: Facial nerve
Levator Anguli Oris
On cheek, right above lip and to the left of the nose.
Elevates angle of mouth as in smiling.
Origin: Maxilla just below infraorbital foramen.
Insertion: Muscles at angle of mouth.
Innervation: Facial nerve
Zygomaticus Major
On the cheek, below Zygomaticus minor.
Draws angle of mouth upward and laterally in laughing.
Origin: Zygomatic bone
Insertion: Superolateral angle of mouth.
Innervation: Facial nerve
Zygomaticus Minor
On the cheek, above Zygomaticus major. By nose.
Elevates upper lip, exposes upper teeth in smiling or sneering.
Origin: Zygomatic bone
Insertion: Muscles of upper lip
Innervation: Facial nerve
Risorius
On the lower part of the cheek.
Draws angle of mouth laterally in expressions of laughing, horror, or disdain.
Origin: Zygomatic arch; fascia near ear.
Insertion: Modiolus
Innervation: Facial nerve
Depressor Anguli Oris
Beneath and to the right of the mouth at chin.
Draws angle of mouth laterally and downward in opening mouth of sad expressions.
Origin: Inferior margin of mandibular body.
Insertion: Modiolus
Innervation: Facial nerve
Depressor Labii Inferioris
Slightly to the right beneath lips at chin.
Draws lower lip downward and laterally in chewing and expresssions of melancholy or doubt.
Origin: Mandible near mental protuberance.
Insertion: Skin and mucosa of lower lip.
Innervation: Facial nerve
Mentalis
Straight beneath mouth on chin.
Elevates and protrudes lower lip in drinking, pouting, and expressions of dobut or disdain; elevates and wrinkles skin of chin.
Origin: Mandible near inferior incisors.
Insertion: Skin of chin at mental protuberance.
Innervation: Facila nerve
Buccinator
To the side of the mouth.
Compressses cheek against teeth and gums; directs food between molars; retracts cheek from teeth when mouth is closingto prevent biting cheek; expels air and liquid.
Origin: Fascia of deltoid and pectroalis major.
Insertion: Mandible; skin and subcutaneous tissue of lower face.
Innervation: Facial nerve
Platysma
Neck.
Draws lower lip and angle of mouth downward in expressions of horror or surprise; may aid in opening mouth widely.
Origin: Fascia of deltoid and pectoralis major.
Insetion: Mandible; skin and subcutaneous tissue of lower face.
Innervation: Facial nerve
Genioglossus
Below cheek.
Unilateral action draws tongue to one side; bilateral action depresses midline of tongue or protudes tongue.
Origin: Superior mental spine on posterior surface of mental protuberance.
Insertion: Inferior surface of tongue from root apex.
Innervation: Hypoglossal nerve
Hyoglossus
Behind Genioglossus by cheek.
Depresses tongue.
Origin: Superior metnal spine on posterior surface of mental potuberance.
Insertion: Inferior surface of tongue from root to apex.
Innervation Hypoglossal nerve
Styloglossus
Cheek area.
Draws tongue upward and posteriorly.
Origin: Styoloid process of temporal bone and ligament from styolodi process to mandible.
Insertion: Superolateral surface of tongue.
Innervation: Hypoglossal nerve
Palatoglossus
Far back on the cheek.
Elevates root of tongue and closes oral cavity off from pharynx; forms palatoglossal arch at rear of oral cavity.
Origin: Soft palate.
Insertion: Lateral surface of tongue.
Innervation: Accesory and vagus nerves.
Temporalis
Upper side of head.
Elevation, retraction, and lateral and medial excursion ofthe mandible.
Origin: Temporal olines and temporal fossa of cranium.
Insertion: Coronial process and anterior border of mandibular ramus.
Innervation: Mandibular nerve
Masseter
Back behind chin.
Elevation of the mandible, with smaller roles in protraction, retraction, and lateral and medial excursion.
Origin: Zygomatic arch.
Insetion: Lateral surface of mandibular ramus and angle.
Innervation: Mandibular nerve
Medial Pterygoid
On cheek.
Elevation, protraction, and lateral and medial excursion of the mandible.
Origin: Medial surface of laterla pterygoid plate; palatine bone; lateral surface of maxilla near molar teeth.
Insertion: Medial surface of mandibular ramus and angle.
Innervation: Mandibular nerve
Lateral Pterygoid
Above Medial Pterygoid on cheek.
Depression (in wide opening of the mouth), protraction, and lateral and medial excrusion of the mandible.
Origin: Lateral surfaces of lateral pyerygoid plate; greater wing of sphenoid.
Insertion: Neck of mandible (just below condyle); articular disc and capsule of temporomandibular joint.
Innervation: Mandibular nerve
Digastric
Upper throat.
Depresses mandible when hyoid is fixed; opens mouth widely, as when ingesting food or yawning; elevates hyoid when mandible is fixed.
Origin: Mastoid notch of temporal bone; digastric fossa of mandible.
Insertion: Hyoid bone via fascial sling.
Innervation: Posterior belly: facial nerve. Anteriro belly: mylohyoid nerve.
Geniohyoid
Beneath mouth/throat.
Dperesses mandible when hyoid is fixed; elevates and protracts hyoid when mandible is fixed.
Origin: Inferior mental spine of mandible.
Insertion: Hyoid bone.
Innervation: Spinal nerve C1 via hypoglossal nerve.
Mylohyoid
Under chin.
Spans mandible when hyoid is fixed; elevates and protracts hyoid when mandible is fixed.
Origin: Inferior metnal spine of mandible.
Insertion: Hyoid bone.
Innervation: Mylohyoid nerve of mandible.
Stylohyoid
Neck.
Eelvates and retracts hyoid, elongating floor of mouth; roles in speech, chewing, and swallowing are not yet clearly understood.
Origin: Styloid process of temporal bone.
Insertion: Hyoid bone
Innervation: Facial nerve
Omohyoid
Throat/neck area.
Depressese hyoid after it has been elevated.
Origin: Superior border of scapula.
Insertion: Hyoid bone.
Innervation: Ansa cervicalis
Sternohyoid
Throat/neck area, below Omohyoid.
Depress larynx after it hs been elevated.
Origin: Manubrium of sternum; medial end of clavicle.
Insertion: Hyoid bone.
Innervation: Ansa cervicalis
Thyrohyoid
Throat/neck area, above all other hyoids.
Depresses hyoid; with hyoid fixes, elevates larynx as in singing high notes.
Origin: Thyroid cartilage of larynx.
Insertion: Hyoid bone.
Innervation: Spinal nerve C1 via hypoglossal nerve.
Sternothyroid
Throat/neck area, lowest of all hyoids.
Depresses larynx after it hs been elevated in swallowing and vocalization; aids in singing low notes.
Origin: Manubrium of sternum; costal cartilage 1.
Insertion: Thyroid cartialge of larynx.
Innervation: Ansa cervicalis
Superior, Middle, and InferiorPharyngeal Constrictors
Neck/throat area.
During swallowing, contract in order from superior to middle to inferior constrictor to drive food into esophagus.
Origin: Medial pterygoid plate; mandible; hyoid; stylohyoid ligament; cartilages of larynx.
Insertion: Posteromedial seam of pharynx; basilar part of occipital bone.
Innervation: Glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.
Sternocleidomastoid
Back of neck.
Unilateral action tilts head slightly upward and twoard the opposite side, as in looking over one's contralateral shoulder. The msot common action is probably rotating the head to the left or right. Bilateral action draws the head straight forward and down, as when eating or reading. Aids in deep breathing when head is fixed.
Origin: Manubrium of sternum; medial one-third of clavicle.
Insertion: Mastoid process; lateral half of superior nuchal line.
Innervation: Accesory nerve; spinal nerve C2-C3.
Anterior, Middle, and Posteriro Scalenes
Side of lower neck/throat.
Unilateral contraction caues ipsilateral flexion or contralateral rotation (tilts head toward same shoulder, or rotates face away), depending on action of other muscles. Bilateral contraction flexes neck. If spine is fixed, scalenes elevate ribs 1-2 and aid in breathing.
Origin: Transverse processes of all cervical vertebrae (C1-C7)
Insertion: Ribs 1-2
Innervation: Anteriro rami of spinal nerves C3-C8.
Trapezius
Back shoulder blade.
Extends and alterally flexes neck.
Origin: External occipital protuberance; medial one-thrid of superiro nuchal line; nuchal ligament; spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T3 or T4.
Insertion: Acromion and spine of scapula; lateral one-thrid of clavicle.
Innervation: Accessory nerve; anteriro rami of spinal nerves C3-C4.
Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis
Neck.
Acting unilaterally, produce ipsilateral flexion and slight rotation of head; extend head when acting bilaterally.
Origin: Inferiro half of nuchal ligament; spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T6.
Insertion: Mastoid process and occipital bone jsut inferior to superior nuchal line; cervical vertebrae C1-C2 or C3.
Innervation: Posterior rami of middle cervical nerves.
Semispinalis Capitits and Semispinalis Cervicis
Back of head/neck area.
Extend and contralaterally rotate head.
Origin: Articular processes of vertevrae C4-C7; transverse processes of T1-T6.
Insertion: Occipital bone between nuchal lines; spinous processes of vertebrae C2-C5.
Innervation: Posterior rami of cervical and thoracic nerves.