Anterior, Middle, and Posteriro Scalenes
Side of lower neck/throat.
Unilateral contraction caues ipsilateral flexion or contralateral rotation (tilts head toward same shoulder, or rotates face away), depending on action of other muscles. Bilateral contraction flexes neck. If spine is fixed, scalenes elevate ribs 1-2 and aid in breathing.
Origin: Transverse processes of all cervical vertebrae (C1-C7)
Insertion: Ribs 1-2
Innervation: Anteriro rami of spinal nerves C3-C8.