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Aristotle has that heavy objects fall faster than light ones so it much be so.

appeal to authority
-appealing in an improper way to expert opinion

The majority of people like soda. Therefore, soda is good

Appeal to Crowd
- arguing that a view must be true because most people believe it.

You owe me big time because I really stuck my neck out for you.

Appeal to Emotion
-to stir up feeling instead of arguing logically

If you don't want to get beaten up, you will agree with what I say

Appeal to Force
-using threats to get a conclusion accepted

You are so stupid your argument couldn't possibly be true

Ad hominem
-attacking the person instead of the view

No one has proved that there are UFOs
Therefore there are no UFO's

Appeal to Ignorance
-arguing that a view must be false because no one has proved it.

Yellow is a color
Corn is yellow
So, corn is a color

-changes the meaning of a term or phrase within the argument


Beside the point
-arguing for a conclusion irrelevant to the issue at hand

We should either take all the Bible literally or none of it.

Black and white
-oversimplifying by assuming that one of two extremes must be true

God must have created the world since someone did.

-assuming the truth of what has yet to be proved

Are you still beating your wife?

complex question
-asking a question that assumes the truth of something false or doubtful

Christians are peaceful, Muslins are terrorists.

false stereoptype
-assuming that members of a certain group are more alike than they are

Belief in God is explained because of one's need for a father figure.

-arguing that a view must be false because we can explain why you hold it

Those liberals believe in legalized same-sex marriages
Therefore we shouldn't legalize same-sex marriages

-arguing that a view must be false because our opponents believe it

You should vote for this candidate because she's intelligent and has much experience in politics.

-an one-sided appeal to advantages and disadvantages

I ate tuna for lunch and aced my midterm
Therefor tuna made me ace my midterm

post hoc
-arguing that since A happening after B, thus A was caused by B

People like cake. People like icecream. People will like icecream cake.

Part-whole composition
-arguing that what applies to the part must apply to the whole

"Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can't understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that."

straw man
-misrepresents a opponents view

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