AP Psych - Learning

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Classical Conditioning
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ExtinctionWhen a conditioned response stops happening, or in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced so it the response is forgotten.Spontaneous RecoveryAfter extinction, a response comes back after the conditioned stimulus or reinforcement is reintroduced, but this time is happens faster then during the first stage of acquisition.Rescorla-Wagner ModelA cognitive model of classical conditioning that suggests that classical conditioning only occurs when the organism has learned to set up an expectation.Ivan PavlovRussian physiologist that discovered classical conditioning; trained dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell.John B. WatsonThe founder of behaviorism. He conducted the Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat.Little Albert ExperimentAn experiment created by John B. Watson to study classical conditioning and fear. This study paired a white rat with a loud sudden noise in order to condition a fear response in an infant.BehaviorismA perspective/approach to psychology based on the idea that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior. Founded by John B. Watson.Operant ConditioningA type of learning that happens when behavior is reinforced if followed by a reward or diminished if followed by punishment.Edward ThorndikePsychologists who studied operant conditioning. He put cats in a Puzzle Box and developed the idea of the Law of Effect.Thorndike's Puzzle BoxDevice invented by Thorndike that had a lever a cat could push to get food. He used it to show operant conditioning.The Law of EffectThorndike's principle that stated that behaviors that are rewarded are likely to be repeated and behaviors that are punished will be less likely to be repeated.B.F. SkinnerBehaviorist that developed the theory of operant conditioning by training pigeons and rats.The Skinner BoxDevice used by B.F. Skinner in which a rat was put in a box with a lever that released food once it is pushed.ReinforcementIn operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.PunishmentIn operant conditioning, an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows.Positive ReinforcementA consequence of a behavior that increases that behavior by giving the subject something desirable. (Ex: Food, money or prizes.)Negative ReinforcementA consequence of a behavior that increases that behavior by stopping or reducing something undesirable. (Ex: Taking away chores or lessening pain.)Positive PunishmentA consequence of a behavior that decreases or stops a behavior by giving or adding something undesirable (Ex: Giving someone more homework for misbehaving in class or spanking.)Negative PunishmentA consequence of a behavior that decreases or stops that behavior by taking away something desirable. (Ex: Taking away one's phone, grounding, or fines)ShapingAn operant conditioning procedure in which the subject's behavior is guided by reinforcers to get closer and closer to the desired behavior.Primary ReinforcersA reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need such as food, shelter, etc.Secondary ReinforcersLearned reinforcers that develop their reinforcing properties because of their association with primary reinforcers. Ex: money, gold star, etc.Partial ReinforcmentReinforcing the desired behavior only sometimes. (This is most effective at maintaining the behavior after the desired behavior is already learned.)Continuous ReinforcementReinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.Fixed Interval Schedule of ReinforcementIn operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has passed. (Ex: Getting your paycheck after every 2 weeks, or Christmas)Variable Interval Schedule of ReinforcementReinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals (Ex: A pop quiz)Fixed Ratio Schedule of ReinforcementSchedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same (ex: Every 3 books you read, you receive 20 dollars from your parents, or a rewards card at a boba shop.)Variable Ratio Schedule of ReinforcementReinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses (Ex: Lottery, Gambling, Fishing)Observational Learning / Social Learning TheoryMethod of learning by watching and copying other people's behavior, attitudes, or emotional expressions.ModelThe subject that is being watched in observational learningVicarious Reinforcement or PunishmentLearning to anticipate a behavior's consequences in situations similar to ones that you have seen. (Ex: A child sees another child getting in trouble for drawing on the walls. Now, they are less likely to draw on the walls because they anticipate punishment.)Albert BanduraPsychologists who studied observational learning and conducted the Bobo Doll experiment.The Bobo Doll ExperimentExperiment in which young children watched an adult play aggressively (yelling & hitting) with an inflatable clown. Later when the children played with the doll, those children copied the aggressive behavior they had seen.Edward TolmanResearched cognitive maps and latent learning with rats in a maze.Tolman's Maze ExperimentExperiment with rats in a maze to see how reinforcements effected latent learning: Group 1: Rewarded each day, learned maze quickly Group 2: Rewarded every 10th day, learned maze quickly after first reward - Showed Latent learning! Group 3: Never rewarded, did not learn maze wellCognitive MapA mental representation of the layout of one's environmentLatent LearningLearning that happens but is unused until later when it is needed. (Ex: Seeing your mom do laundry and learning how, but never having to do laundry until you go away to college.)Insight learning / Ah-Ha MomentSuddenly realizing a solution to a problem.Wolfgang KohlerGestalt psychologist that first demonstrated insight through his chimpanzee experiments. He noticed the solution process wasn't slow, but sudden and reflective.Kohler's Monkey & Banana ExperimentExperiment in which Köhler demonstrated insight learning by placed a banana outside the cage of a hungry chimpanzee and gave the animal two sticks, each too short for pulling in the food but joinable to make a single stick of sufficient length.Martin SeligmanResearcher known for work on learned helplessness with dogsLearned HelplessnessA situation that occurs after one has failed at a task repeatedly and does not feel in control of their situation (they give up) even if they could be successful.Biological PreparednessIn learning theory, the idea that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses. (Ex: Humans can more quickly learn a fear of snakes than kittens because snakes are more likely to be dangerous.)John GarciaPsychologist who studied taste aversion. Showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance.Taste AversionA type of classical conditioning that occurs when a previously desirable food becomes undesirable after one becomes ill after eating it. (Ex: Guy likes cake --> Guy eats cake --> Guy gets food poisoning --> Now guy avoids eating cake)