Upgrade to remove ads
Immune System Chapter 35
Terms in this set (57)
disease caused by microorganism that disrupts normal body functions
Germ theory of disease
infectious disease is caused by microorganisms (germs)
set of guidelines developed by koch that helps identify the miroorganism that causes a specific disease
disease transmitted from animal to human
animal that transports a pathogen to a human
nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection
chemical released by mast cells that increases the flow of blood and fluids to the infected area during an inflammatory response
one of a group of proteins that help cells resist viral infection
increased body temp that occurs in response to infection
the body's specific recognition, response, and memory to a pathogen attack
a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
immunity against antigens in body fluids, such as blood and lymph
immune response that defends the body against viruses, fungi, and abnormal cancer cells inside living cells
a fully differentiated B cell that produces a single type of antibody
Cytotoxic T cells
cells which destroy body cells marked by antibodies
Memory T cells
cells which remember the invader causing a faster/stronger response to the next infection
Helper T cells
a T cell that influences or controls the differentiation or activity of other cells of the immune system.
Suppressor T cells
a lymphocyte that can suppress antibody production by other lymphoid cells
injection of a weakened,, or a similar but less dangerous, pathogen to produce immunity
the immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen.
temporary immunity that develops as a result of nature or deliberate exposure to an antibody
disease that appears in the population for the first time, or an old disease that suddenly becomes harder to control
antigens that cause allergic reactions
chronic respiratory disease in which air passages narrow, causing wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing
A disease in which the body produces antibodies that attack its own tissues, leading to the deterioration and in some cases to the destruction of such tissue.
The human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive
How are diseases spread?
1. coughing, sneezing, physical contact, or exchange of body fluids
2. contaminated water or food
3. infected animals
What are the 3 ways pathogens cause diseases?
1. destroying cells as they grow
2. releasing toxin (poison) that effect the organism
3. disrupting homeostasis - blockages - blood flow, lymph tissue, remove nutrients
What are the "tags" that are made by B cells and tell T cells to destroy the cell? What are they made of?
antigens, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and/or nucleic acids
What are Koch's postulates? List in order and study the picture in the book/notes.
1. isolate pathogen
2. grow pathogen
3. inoculate healthy creature
4. re-isolate same pathogen
What is a vector? Provide an example.
carrier of pathogen. mosquitos carrying malaria
What is the difference between active and passive immunity? Provide an example of each.
Active immunity-antibodies your body produces due to injection of vaccine; ex: injections
Passive immunity-antibodies produced outside of your body; ex:breast feeding
What are nonspecific defenses for the immune system? Which is the most important?
skin, chemical, inflammatory, fever, interferon
What causes allergies? How do they affect the body?
antigens, mast cells release histamines which initiates the inflammatory repsonse
What are the symptoms of an inflammatory response?
mucus, watery eyes, other irritations
How are histamines important to the inflammatory response? How do they relate to allergies?
they initiate it, people with allergies take antihistamines to avoid the inflammatory response
What does HIV do to the body?
destroys helper t cells which means it destroys your immune system
Why are B cells and T cells considered part of the specific immune system?
because they attack a specific invader
What are antibiotics used for? What was the first mass produced antibiotic?
to eradicate bacteria, penicillin
list the types of organisms that can cause disease
viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists, and parasitic worms
what are ways that pathogens can cause disease in their hosts
viruses replicate by inserting their genetic material into a host cell and taking over many of the host cell's functions. bacteria breaks down the tissue of an infected organism for food or release toxins that interfere with normal activity in the host. fungi causes infections on the surface of the skin, mouth, throat, fingernail, and toenails. protists may infect people through contaminated water and insect bites. parasitic worms may enter through the mouth, nose, anus, or skin
what are the ways in which infectious diseases are spread
coughing, sneezing, physical contact, exchange of body fluids, contaminated food or water
how do vectors contribute to the spread of disease
it brings new animal pathogens to humans and the disease is usually mutated. methods of transmission are being bitten, eating infected meat, or contact with infected feces
why do you think it is a beneficial adaptation for a pathogen to make its host very sick w/o killing the host?
it makes its host sick but doesn't kill it because it needs the nutrients from it and it also carries it around
list the body's nonspecific defenses against pathogens
skin, tears and other secretions, inflammatory response, interferon, and fever
describe the steps of the inflammatory response
cells release histamines, which stimulate increased blood flow to the area. vessels dilate, fluid leaves capillaries, phagocytes move into the tissue. phagocytes engulf and destroy damaged cells.
how does the immune system identify a pathogen
if it recognizes chemical markers programmed by genes, then it knows its 'self'. then it recognizes the invaders as foreign and dangerous
how are the roles of B and T cells different? how are they similar?
they both recognize one specific kind of antigens. b cells discover them in body fluids and t cells must be presented with an antigen by infected cells
what are the two main styles of action of the specific immune response
humoral immunity, which is immunity against antigens in body fluids like blood and lymph, and cell mediated immunity, which is a response that defends the body against viruses, fungi, and abnormal cancer cells inside living cells
explain how vaccinations and externally produced antibodies help the immune system fight disease
vaccinations simulates the immune system with an antigen. the immune system produces memory b cells and memory t cells that quicken and strengthen the body's response to repeated infection
describe the difference between active and passive immunity
active immunity is a form of immunity that develops after a primary immune response which is a response to exposure to a live pathogen and development of symptoms. the cells produce the antibodies themselves. passive immunity is a form of immunity in which a person's cells do not produce the antibodies, they receive them by an injection of antibodies or antitoxin. active immunity is inherited within your body and passive immunity is not since it comes from outside
where are the goals of public health measures
to prevent disease by monitoring and regulating food and water supplies, promoting vaccinations, and promoting behaviors that avoid infection
why is it important to discern if a sickness is caused by a bacterium or a virus
so we know whether to treat it with anti-bacterial or anti-viral drugs
describe 2 major contributing factors involved in the spread of new and re-emerging diseases
1. the ongoing merging of human and animal habitats
2. the increase in the exotic animal trade
5 agents of disease
1. viruses-take over host cell
2. bacteria-release toxins
3. protists-feed on nutrients
4. worms-cause blockages
5. fungus-athlete's foot
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Biology Chapter 16
Chapter 35 Bio Assessment Questions (Infections)
Chapter 12 Assessments
8 quiz 25 questions on quiz
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Biology Chapter 9 Gasca
Ch 40 The Immune System and Disease
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
kappa psi pledge quiz 2
kappa psi questions
phys roles of receptors
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
mmg 301 exam 2 lecture 10 (31)
Emerging, Re-Emerging & Drug Resistant Diseases
Human Microbe Interaction