REL C351 Midterm - Jeffrey

What did the Buddha discover under the Bodhi tree?
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Terms in this set (149)
ShivadestroyerGanesharemover of obstaclesCaste SystemBrahmin- Priest Kshatryia - Warrior Viasya - Merchants Sudra - CommonersUntouchables (Dalits)People without a casteCycle of birth, death, and rebirthSamsaraHow to overcome SamsaraMokshaSacred Text(s) of HinduismShruti and SmritiShrutiHoly texts of Hinduism (vedas are included)SmritiMore important to daily lives of people in HinduismShruti examplesVedas: Rig veda, Yajur veda, Sama veda, Athara vedaSmriti examplesMahabarata (Bhagvag gita is part of this), Ramayana, Purana, Laws of ManuLaws of Manucodification of many specific behavioral norms for each casteBrahmanDivine substanceAtmanHuman soulMayaillusion of separation between brahman and atmanTrimurtiBrahma, Vishnu, ShivaYoga DefinitionunionJnana Yoga/Margapath of knowledge, high caste way of doing thingsBhakti Yoga/Margapath of devotion with a god, most popularLife Aims of HinduismKarma, artha, dharma, mokshaArthamaterial successTirthankarabridge builder, one of the 24 ideal human beings of the pastVarhamana MahaviraLast Tirthankara, born rich, at 30 wandered around for 12 years, at 42 achieved enlightenmentKarma (Jainism)A physical substance that can attach to jiva, can weigh you dontJivasoulUltimate goal of JainismMokshaScriptures of JainismPervas or writings, lead to the divide because of interpretation of textsDigambara"sky-clad," renouncing the use of clothing, more conservativeSvetambaraMeans "white clad" and refers to those Jain monks who wear a white robe or loinclothThree Jewels of JainismRight faith, right knowledge, right conductAjivamatter without soul or life (non living)AsravaActions that drag Karma to soulBandhaKarma can stick to your soulSamvarastopping the influx of karmaNirjaraShedding of karmaAhimsanonviolenceAnekantavada"relativity of views" or tolerance of other worldviewsascetics, asceticisma person who dedicates his or her life to a pursuit of contemplative ideals and practices extreme self-denial or self-mortification for religious reasons.Siddartha GautamaThe Buddha - the first person to become enlightened.Four Noble Truths1. Life is pain (dukkha) 2. The source of dukkha is desire (tanha) 3. Renouncing tanha ends dukkha 4. The way to end tanha is through the Noble Eightfold pathWhere did buddha achieve enlightenmentBodhi treeNirvanaThe state of englightenment for Buddhists.Eightfold Pathright understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration 1-2 wisdom, 3-5 morality, 6-8 meditationSonghaBuddhist community, successor of buddhism(t/f) Buddhism is the most popular religion in India today.FMainstream BuddhismStresses wisdom as an escape from samsaraPali CannonThe primary teachings of Buddhism; also known as the Tripitaka. Discources, Monastic, higher teachingsWhat language is Buddhist scripture?PaliTheravada Buddhismthe way of the elders, wisdom as means of achieving nirvana, non-theistic (own work to get to nirvana)ArhatsOne who has become enlightened; the ideal type for Theravada BuddhismThree Marks of ExistenceAnatta, Anicca, Dukkha no soul, impermanence, sufferingThree virtues of theravada buddhismnon-attachment, benevolence, understandingThree Vices of Theravada buddhismGreed, hatred, delusionMahayana definitiongreat vehicleWhich is the more popular sect of buddhism?MahayanaBodhisattvaa person who has attained enlightenment but who has postponed nirvana in order to help others achieve enlightenmentBuddha (term)Anyone who has been awakened, means awakened one and is a titleMahayana BuddhismAlso known as popular (not mainstream) Buddhism, is allows people more ways to reach enlightenment and boddhisatvas can help you reach enlightenment.Different Sects of Mahayana BuddhismPure land, Tibetan, ZenPure Land BuddhismA denomination of Buddhism that taught that believers would be reborn in a blissful, pure land or paradise. Popular in ChinaTibetan BuddhismFocused on chanting, mandala. It became strongest in Tibet. Dalai lama is a bodhisattva.Zen Buddhisma Buddhist sect that emphasizes enlightenment through meditation and stresses simplicity and discipline. Began in china and later went to Korea and then JapanSikh definitionstudentGuru definitionteacherGuru NanakIndian religious leader who founded Sikhism in dissent from the caste system of HinduismIk Oankar: SKHsikh name for god meaning 'one true name'God in SikhismNo gender, diffused into all nature, will destroy everything and god will exist by itselfWhat is the purpose of life in sikhism?To escape sansarSansarcycle of birth and deathProblem in SikhismHaumai or selfishness or egotismsolution in sikhismHukam or living in line with divine orderFive TheivesLust, Anger, Greed, Pride, AttachmentFive Sacred Activities of SikhismRemembrance of the word, Charity, Ablution (ritual washing), Service, PrayerFive Stages of spiritual development in sikhismDuty, knowledge, effort, grace, truthGurus9 gurus after Nanak, 2 martyrs, Gobind Singh last human guru, Guru granth Sahib current guruKhalsa"Pure ones." An order within Sikhism to which some Sikhs belong, founded by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699Five K's of the KhalsaUncut hair or Kesha, dagger or kirpin, drawstring underwear or kacha, iron bracelet or kara, hair comb or KanghaNames and Drink of the KhalsaNames- Singh or Lion, Kaur or princess Drinks - amrit sweetened waterHow many are members of the khalsa5-15%AmritsarNorthern Indian city and location of the Golden Temple, Sikhism's holiest shrine. Holy body of waterGurdwara definitiondoor to the guruNam Sirmanrepeating of the divine nameWaheguruName for God used especially in worship, wonderful teacherRu definitionScholarConfuciusA Chinese philosopher known also as Kong Fuzi and created one of the most influential philosophies in Chinese history, unsuccessful goverenment advisorFive Classics of ConfucianismBook of Odes, Book of Documents, Book of Changes, Book of Rites, and the Spring and Autumn Annals.Problem of Confucianismsocial chaosSolution of ConfucianismRen or humaneness , li or ritual propriety, xiao or filial pietyJunziProfound personFilial Pietyrespect shown by children for their parents and eldersFive Relationships1. husband and wife 2. parent and child 3. elder and younger brother 4. ruler and Minister or subject 5. friend and friendWomen obediencesFather, husband, sonsFive Virtues of ConfucianismLi (propriety); Ren (humaneness); Xin (fidelity); Yi (righteousness), Zhi (knowing the difference between right and wrong or wisdom).RenSymbol of person and 2, means you must have 2 people to be humane You can't be authentically human without othersMengziViewed people as goodXunziViewed people as badCivil Service ExamIn Imperial China starting in the Han dynasty, it was an exam based on Confucian teachings that was used to select people for various government service jobs in the nationwide administrative bureaucracy.Neo-Confuscianism became popular because...the government supported it; it became more than a system of rules; and it incorporated some Buddhist and Daoist beliefs, but also critiqued themAfter the Cultural RevolutionConfucian revival, in the time of Mao, but not in the time of the cultural revolutionNew-Confucianism20th century concerns, develops outside of china, critiques communismDao definitionThe wayQi definitionlife force, vital energyYin and Yangtwo forces in the universe, according to Chinese Theory: Yin is the passive, negative force, feminine and Yang the active, positive force, masculineLaoziFounder of DaoismWuweiNon-action, the preferred Daoist path of least resistance, allowing things to run their natural courseZhuangziAuthor of the Zhuangzi, expresses themes of early Daoist thought through Confucius and Laozi having a conversation togetherInternal AlchemyMovement and meditation designed to improve ch'i and dislodge any blockage to its flowExternal Alchemyelixirs of immortalityZhang Daolingfounder of the first known Daoist organization, the Celestial Masters, and the first in a lineage of Celestial Masters that continues todayNirvana definitionblow outcircumstances in which the founder of sikhism was raisedhindu family muslim communityFounder of HinduismNo founderHow many Hindu gods are there?millionsDefinition of religion among religious scholarsthere is no standard definitionkami definitiongods or spirits of natural phenomena or sometimes great figurescause of suffering BuddhaattachmentHow did the founder of sikhism gain his knowledgein a river and taken to heavenhow did confucious gain knowledgehe studied the ways of the old masterscentral concern of shintopurity- the natural state of humanityWhat was the first teaching of Guru NanakGod is oneOther than meat, what else is forbidden to eat in JainismRoot vegetableBhatki tradition rely on ____ to achieve their ultimate goalsgodsState Shinto focuses on what characterthe Emperor of JapanShinto definitionThe way of the godsSignificant theme of shintoismPurity and purificationT/F Japanese people believe they are descended from gods?THarai definitionpurityT/F Humans are born impureF: Humans are born pure and impurity is an abnormality that comes upon them from outside circumstanceMisobipurification rituals to take of impurityTamisuwashing of hands and faceHarai ceremonygreat purification, once a year, to remove sin from a group/companyHow to worship in shintoismUsually personal worship, begin with harai, offer food (rice), offer prayers to kami at alterHow many shries/temples are throughout Japan?100,000Bushido Codecode of conduct for samurai during the feudal period in Japan, proper livingShort Answer: Concept of holy envyWhen you find practices/ traditions/experiences of another religion that you find meaningful that you wish such things were incorporated into your own religionShort Answer: Differing ideas of Karma in different religious traditionsKarma in Hinduism are actions that you perform have an effect on our "samsara" Karma in Jainism is a physical substance that can attach to jiva (soul) and can weigh you down from achieving Moksha Karma in Buddhism is a force that pushes things along toward the path of nirvana Karma in SikhismShort Answer: Historical reliability of various religious text relating to their founders and teachingsthe shurti were orally given and passed down until they were written,Short Answer: gender and class, how they relate to various religious traditionsShort answer: How cultural movements (wars, immigration, etc.) affect the development and spread of religious traditions