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AP Human Geography; Unit 2
Terms in this set (88)
Portion of the Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Area of the Earth's surface that humans consider too harsh for occupancy (approx. 35-40%).
Arithmetic (crude) Density
Total # of people divided by total land area
Physiological (nutritional) density
# of people supported by a unit of arable land
Ratio of # of farmers to the amount of arable land
Crude birth rate(CBR)
Total # of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
Crude death rate(CDR)
Total # of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
Natural increase rate(NIR)
The % by which a population grows in a year. It does notinclude migration.
# of years needed to double a pop., assuming a constant rate of natural increase
Total Fertility Rate
average # of children a woman will have throughout her child-bearing years (15-49).
Child Mortality Rate
the annual number of deaths of children between ages 1 & 5.
Infant Mortality Rate
the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1000 born alive.
average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels.
The Demographic Transition
the changes allcountries have in NIR, TFR, mortality rates, but at different times and at different speeds.
medical technology developed in MDCs diffused to LDCs. Increase in vaccinations and use of pesticides.
Population structure can be shown on a pyramid, a form of bar graph.
the# of people who are too young (0-14) or too old (65+) to work compared to the number of people in their productive years.Nearly
The number of males per hundred females in the population.
The scientific study of population characteristics......
The study of the characteristics of human populations.......
The scientific study of population, with particular emphasis upon quantitative aspects.
A value judgment that the resources of an area are insufficient to sustain adequately its present population numbers.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.........
The term applied to the rapid economic and social changes in agriculture and manufacturing that followed the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry of England in the last quarter of the 18th century.
Zero population growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
The advocacy of population control programs to preserve and improve general national prosperity and well-being.
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
Literally, cultivable; land fit for cultivation by one farming method or another.
Stationary population level
The level at which a national population ceases to grow.
Eugenic population policies
Government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others.
Restrictive population policies
Restrictive population policies Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.
Count of the number of people in a country, region, or city
The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase.
A curve shaped like the letter J, depicting exponential or geometric growth (1, 2, 4, 8, 16...).
The maximum number of users that can be sustained, over the long term, by a given set of natural resources
the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
An English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834).
areas of land where people are most dense
a curve that depicts logistic growth; shape of an "S"
Negative population growth
when population declines either by lower birth rates or immigration
a significance increase in the birthrate after a war, etc.
a law in China that said each family can have no more than one child, or they would have to pay heavy fines and the second child would not get free education or other benefits
Was a plan made in 1980 for the world to level off population growth by 2015.
linear (arithmetic) growth
exponential (geometric) growth
A change in residence indented to be permanent. See also chain, forced, internal, international, step and voluntary migration.
Migration from a location.
Migration to a new location.
the gain or loss in the total population of a particular area as a result of migration.
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
Factor that induces people to leave old residences.
Factor that induces people to move to a new location.
individual who crosses national boundaries to seek safety and asylum are a significant global problem.
Shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state.
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
Permanent movement from one country to another.
a move within a particular country or region.
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Permanent movement within one region of a country.
Permanent movement undertaken by choice
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
made numerous geographical studies of American popular culture, ranging from the diffusion of classical place-names to spatial patterns of personal given names and to the spatial patterning of religious denominations.
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
People who enter a country without proper documents.
In reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
Large-scale emigration by talented people
individuals who migrate temporarily to take up jobs in other countries.
the net loss of population from cities to smaller towns and rural areas.
A mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them.
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to town and city.
(syn: return migration) The return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated.
The area within which people move freely on their rounds of regular activity.
Movement for example, nomadic migration that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally.
regular travel between one's place of residence and place of work or full time study.
Movement - for example, college attendance or military service - that involves temporary, recurrent relocation.
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries during their dislocation, searching for asylum in a different country.
fleeing from one region from another
Refugee who does not return to their country of origin and is given permanent residence status in the new country
Status given to a refugee prior to receiving permanent residency in a new country
Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state.
the ability to move, either permanently or temporarily.
migrants who set up homes and/or work in more than one nation-state
the growth of population along the fringes of large metropolitan areas
population movement caused by the degradation of land and essential natural resources.
Area from which a given city or place draws a majority of the in-migrants
The tendency for migration to flow between areas that are socially and economically allied by past migration patterns, by economic and trade connections, or by some other affinity.
Ravenstein's Laws of Migration
"laws" of migration in the 1880s based on studies carried out in the UK. ex:Most migrants move only a short distance
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