Medicine Week 1
Terms in this set (62)
Acute coronary thrombosis
Obstruction of a coronary artery by a thrombus (clot), often leading to destruction of heart muscle.
Acute coronary syndrome
term used for any condition brought on by sudden, reduced blood flow to the heart. (symptoms = chest pressure)- an umbrella term for situations where the blood supplied to the heart muscle is suddenly blocked.
Acute renal failure
Sudden and often temporary loss of kidney function. Also called acute kidney failure
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
a life-threatening lung condition that prevents enough oxygen from getting to the lungs and into the blood.
the desensitization of a clinician to an alarm stimulus that results from sensory overload causing the response of an alarm to be delayed or missed
Chest pain due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle. The pain is typically severe and crushing, and it is characterized by a feeling of pressure and suffocation just behind the breastbone
examination by X-ray of blood or lymph vessels, carried out after introduction of a radiopaque (opaque to x-rays) substance.
surgical repair or unblocking of a blood vessel, especially a coronary artery.
a condition in which the heart beats with an irregular or abnormal rhythm
the thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries, occurring typically in old age.
1. degeneration of the walls of the arteries caused by accumulated fatty deposits and scar tissue, and leading to restriction of the circulation and a risk of thrombosis.
2. the fatty material that forms plaques in the arteries.
Or flutter is a common type of abnormal heartbeat. The heart rhythm is fast and irregular in this condition.
Inability to move in bed
the clinical purification of blood by dialysis, as a substitute for the normal function of the kidney. (occurs at bedside)
CABG (Coronary artery bypass graft)
The bypass graft can be a vein from the leg or an inner chest-wall artery.
An option for patients with significant narrowing and blockages of the heart arteries.
used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. A long thin tube called a catheter is inserted in an artery or vein in your groin, neck or arm and threaded through your blood vessels to your heart.
transmission of cardiac signals (electric or pressure derived) to a receiving location where they are displayed for monitoring.
technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery, maintaining the circulation of blood and the oxygen content of the body.
Central venous pressure
the pressure of blood in the thoracic vena cava, near the right atrium of the heart.
Reflects the amount of blood returning to the heart and the ability of the heart to pump the blood into the arterial system.
process by which the body forms blood clots to prevent excess blood loss.
Begins with activation of the intrinsic or extrinsic pathways of coagulation, or of one of the related alternative pathways, and proceeding through the common pathway of coagulation to the formation of the fibrin clot. Each step involves activation of an enzyme precursor, the activated form catalyzing activation of the following step.
Congestive heart failure
Failure of the heart to pump blood with normal efficiency. Is unable to provide adequate blood flow to other organs.
The most accurate method (the "gold standard") for evaluating and defining coronary artery disease (CAD). Is used to identify the exact location and severity of CAD.
a blockage of the flow of blood to the heart, caused by a blood clot in a coronary artery.
Decompensated CHF (congestive heart failure)
is a worsening of the symptoms, typically shortness of breath (dyspnea), edema, and fatigue, in a patient with existing heart disease
an apparatus used to control heart fibrillation (a very rapid irregular contractions of the muscle fibers of the heart) by application of an electric current to the chest wall or heart.
The decline in performance of one (usually the left ventricle) or both ventricles during diastole.
causing increased passing of urine/ a diuretic drug
a test of the action of the heart using ultrasound waves to produce a visual display, used for the diagnosis or monitoring of heart disease.
a measurement of the percentage of blood leaving your heart each time it contracts.
a test that checks for problems with the electrical activity of your heart.
Translates the heart's electrical activity into line tracings on paper. The spikes and dips in the line tracings are called waves.
Indwelling urinary catheter
A tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
Inserted into the bladder in two ways, but usually its inserted through the urethra.
the obstruction of the blood supply to an organ or region of tissue, typically by a thrombus or embolus, causing local death of the tissue.
Intermittent pneumatic compression stockings
a therapeutic technique used in medical devices that include an air pump and inflatable auxiliary sleeves, gloves or boots in a system designed to improve venous circulation in the limbs of patients who suffer edema or the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism
a tube inserted (as through the nose or mouth) into the trachea to maintain an unobstructed passageway especially to deliver oxygen or anesthesia to the lungs—called also breathing tube
an inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, especially the heart muscles.
a method to mechanically assist or replace spontaneous breathing.
May involve a machine ventilator or assisted by a suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows.
the muscular tissue of the heart
difficulty in breathing that occurs when lying down and is relieved upon changing to an upright position (as in congestive heart failure)
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
refers to attacks of severe shortness of breath and coughing that generally occur at night.
Usually awakens the person from sleep, and may be quite frightening.
PCI (Percutaneous coronary intervention)
performed to open blocked coronary arteries caused by coronary artery disease (CAD) and to restore arterial blood flow to the heart tissue without open-heart surgery.
an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity.
Leads to an increased intrapericardial pressure which can negatively affect heart function.
inflammation of the pericardium (the membrane enclosing the heart)
after pressure is applied to a small area, the indentation persists after the release of the pressure
an abnormal buildup of fluid in the air sacs of the lungs, which leads to shortness of breath.
an obstruction of a blood vessel in the lungs, usually due to a blood clot.
a device that measures the oxygen saturation of arterial blood in a subject by utilizing a sensor attached typically to a finger, toe, or ear to determine the percentage of oxyhemoglobin in blood pulsating through a network of capillaries
the restoration of the blood circulation of an organ or area, achieved by unblocking obstructed or disrupted blood vessels or by surgically implanting replacements.
the right side of the heart is not pumping blood to the lungs as well as normal.
any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury.
"status post"/ "condition after"
an asymptomatic form of myocardial ischemia that may damage the heart muscle.
a tubular support placed temporarily inside a blood vessel, canal, or duct to aid healing or relieve an obstruction.
surgical incision through the sternum
test that uses ultrasound imaging to show how well your heart muscle is working to pump blood to your body.
Mainly used to detect a decrease in blood flow to the heart from narrowing in the coronary arteries.
(stress test) test that checks for changes in your heart while you exercise.
Sudden cardiac death
an unexpected death due to cardiac causes that occurs in a short time period (generally within 1 hour of symptom onset) in a person with known or unknown cardiac disease
The left ventricle loses its ability to contract normally. The heart can't pump with enough force to push enough blood into circulation.
surgical incision into the chest wall
causing the break-up of a blood clot
a clot of blood formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin
a severely abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) that can be life threatening.
a rapid heartbeat that starts in the ventricles.
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