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65 terms

med. terms 2

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coagulation time
venous blood is clotted in a test tube
hematocrit
sample of blood is spun in a test tube so that red cells fall to the bottom and percentage of RBCs is taken
red blood cell morphology
blood smear is examined to determine the shape or form of cells
white blood cell differential
leukocytes are stained and counted under a microscope to see numbers of mature and immature forms
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
venous blood is collected ; anti-coagulant added and the distance cells fall in a period of time is determined
erythrocyte
red blood cell
monocyte
white blood cell; phagocyte and precursor of a macrophage
platelet
thrombocyte
hematopoietic stem cell
bone marrow cell; gives rise to many types of cells
lymphocyte
leukocyte formed in lymph tissue; produces antibodies
eosinophil
leukocyte with dense, reddish granules; associated with allergic reaction
neutrophil
leukocyte (poly) formed in bone marrow and having neurtal-staining granules
basophil
leukocyte whose granules have and affinity for basic stain; releases histamine and heparin
poikilocytosis
irregularity is shape; abnormality in red blood cells
erythrocytopenia
defiency in numbers
hypochromic
reduction in hemoglobin (color)or reduction in red cells due to excessive cell destrution
microcytosis
increase in numbers of small cells
polycythemia vera
erythemia
macrocytosis
increase in number of large cells
erythropoiesis
formation of red cells
hemolysis
destruction of red cells
palliative
relieving, but not curing
pancytopenia
deficiency of all blood cells
eosinophilia
increase in numbers of granulocytes; seen in allergic conditions
relapse
symtoms of disease return
purpura
multiple pinpoint hemmorages; blood accumulates under the skin
apheresis
separation of blood into its components
remission
symtoms of disease disappear
red blood cell morphology
a stained blood smear is examined to determine the shape of individual red blood cells
hematocrit
measures the percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood
platelet count
determines the number of clotting cells per cubic millimeter
coagulation time
ability of venous blood to clot in a test tube
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
measures the speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma
WBC differential
determines the number of different types of WBCs
coombs test
determines the presence of antibodies in infants of Rh-negative women or patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia
hematopoietic stem cell transplant
undifferentiated blood cells from a donor are infused into a patient being treated for leukemia or aplastic anemia
bleeding time
time it takes for a small puncture wound to stop bleeding
bone marrow biopsy
needle is introduced into the bone marrow cavity, and a small amount of marrow is aspirated and then examined under the microscope
autologous transfusion
blood is collected from and later reinfused into the same patient
plasma
liquid portion of blood
erythropoietin
hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate erythrocyte production of bone marrow
globulin
proteins in plasma; can be separated into alpha, beta, and gamma types
albumin
plasma protein that maintains the proper amount of water in blood
antibodies
proteins made by lymphocytes in response to antigens in the blood
leukocytopenia/leukopenia
deficiency of white blood cells
myelopoiesis
formation of bone marrow
anticoagulant
a substance that stops clotting
thrombolytic
pertaining to destruction of clots
sickle cell anemia
abnormally shaped red blood cells
aplastic anemia
all blood cells are not produced in the bone marrow
thalassemia
an inherited defect, inability to produce hemoglobin
CLL
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
AML
acute myelogenous leukemia
autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura
deficiency of platelets with hemorages into the skin
hemophilia
excessive bleeding caused by a hereditary lackof the clotting factor VIII
electrophoresis
separating out plasma protein by electrical charge
antigens
substance (usually forein) that stimulates the production of an antibody
bilirubin
orange-yellow pignent in bile, formed by breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die
heparin
anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells
erythroblast
immature red blood cell
hemolysis
breakdown of red blood cells when someone is given incompatible (wrong) blood type
iron deficiency enemia
most common of anemias; cause by lack of iron (which is required for hemoglobin production). Many erythrocytes are small(microcytic) and have increase central pollar(hypochromic), variations in size(anisocytosis)and shape(poikilocytosis)
hemochromatosis
excessive deposits of iron throughout the body
signs of AML
affects primarily adults;platelets and erythrocytes are diminished because of infiltration and replacement of the bone marrow by large numbers of myeloblasts
signs of CLL
most common form of leukemia usually occursin the elderly and follows a slow progressive course