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american expeditionary force

About 2 million Americans went to France as members of this under General John J. Pershing

general "blackjack" pershing

Leader of the american troops. General and commander of all the forces during WWI
said troops remain in single command, troops wanted americans to fill trenches, blackjack said no
said americans couldnt go in combat till trained
motto "first to fight"

Bolshevik Revolution

phase of the Russian Revolution; led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks and marked the first Marxist communist revolution of the 20th century

Lever Act 1917

gave president control over production, prices, and distribution over food and fuel

overman act 1918

reinforced presidents emergency war powers
effort: to win war
america was feeding themselves and european allies

herbert hoover

in charge of food administration
, President from 1929 to 1933, called on businesses to help solve the situation rather than the government. Americans felt he did little to help them.

food administration

Created by Wilson during WWI - Led by Herbert Hoover - set up ration system to save food for soldiers

railroad administration

run by William McAdoo, set transportation limits and limits on wages
transported raw materials
limited passenger travel

William G McAdoo

the secretary of the treasury that was assigned to supervise the nation's railroads. He combined the railroads into one large rail system, eliminated competition, pooled all railroad equipment and eliminated many passenger trains to clear the track for the hauling of war materials and troops

War industries board

Agency created by Woodrow Wilson during WW1 to oversee the production and distribution of goods manufactured by nations war industries.

Bernard Baruch

Head of the war industries board

war labor board

created by the US government to keep costs and wages under control for workers (laborers)

committee on public information

Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda

george creel

Headed the Committee on Public Information, for promoting the war effort in WWI

liberty leagues

urged people to spy on neighbors and report any suspicious activity. ANTIGERMAN

espionage act 1917

Law which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty during WW1

sedition act 1918

made it illegal for americans to speak disloyaly about the US government, constitution, or flag

executive order 1917

federal employers couldnt criticize war effort

eugene debs

Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.

armistice day

November 11, 1918; Germany signed an armistice (an agreement to stop fighting); this US holiday is now known as Veterans Day

treaty of versailes

Peace agreement intended to end the Great War and all future wars

league of nations

world congress of all countries to settle disputes peacefully

14 points

1. open diplomacy
2. freedom of seas
3. free trade
4. arms reduction
5. national boundaries
14. league of nations


a group of senators who oppose the league of nations

rural vs. urban

Rural- People moving from country to the city because they have fewer conveniences, education, money. People in rural areas are mostly farmers. Urban- People in cities are mostly factory, retail, and office workers. More conveniences, education, and money.


movement of individuals into a population


a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages


change over time


Ku Klux Klan--Against Blacks, Jews, Catholics. Used terror to control them

Warren G. Harding

president after World War I who promised to return the US to normalism

government corruption

included "bosses" and political machines, who used money, power, and fear to "win" elections.

teapot dome scandal

a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921

election of 1928

Al Smith (Dem)
product of tammany hall, son of immigrant parents, unknown
Herbert Hoover (Rep), Hoover wins
incharge of ag, from iowa/engineer,

Herbert Hoover

president of the U.S from 1923-1933 leader of the US in the beginning of the great depression. He didn't want the gov involved in the peoples lives and thought that the people should express their individual rights.

Andrew Mellon

the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics. (Hamiltonian economics)

trickle-down economics

govt gives tax breaks to company owners, who in turn give workers larger wages; INEFFECTIVE

causes of depression

Stock Market Crash of 1929; Business Depression; Banks Collapsed; Over production of Farm and Industry; Overexpansion of credit through installment-plan;

agriculture depression

-over production, prices go down
production increases, prices increases
-imblalance of foreighn trade
-stock market crashed
-low marigin requirement

buying on the margin

buying stocks and borrowing money from a bank or broker; if the money way not paid back, the bank would foreclose on posessions; everyday people could buy stock; led to stock market crash because of overextention

hoover's efforts

Contrary to what was expected, Hoover took strong action against the depression. He created a volunteer cooperation, passed the Revenue Act, and strongly encouraged businesses to keep going and not lay people off. He also passed a moratorium on international debts.

Bonus army

Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash

franklin d roosevelt

President of the US during Great Depression and World War II

the new deal

The programs and policies to promote economic recovery and social reform introduced during the 1930s by President Franklin D. Roosevelt

national banking act

1863 - Established system of national charters for banks




Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.


Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII


Public Works Administration. Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.



new deal & reform

laws to prevent another Depression

huey p long

nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician from the U.S. state of Louisiana. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. He served as Governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and as a U.S. senator from 1932 to 1935. Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, Long split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and allegedly planned to mount his own presidential bid.

national banking acts 1935

acts of Congress that brought the 12 Fed Res Banks under the control of the Board of Governors

agricultural adjustment act

Restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area.

securities & exchange commission

an independent federal agency that oversees the exchange of securities to protect investors

tennessee valley authority

A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

2nd new deal

Legislative program focusing on REFORM begun by FDR in 1935 when the first attempt to end the Depression failed.

purge of 1938


changes & accomplishments of the new deal


John Maynard Keynes

British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption

Election of 1940

Rossevelt (dem) vs. Wendell Wilkie (rep), Roosevelt wins ; FDR had to declare that he would not send Americans to war in order to win ; greatly plagued the years before WWII ; won in a landslide ; first time a president was elected for a third term

Benito Mussolini

head of the Italian Fascist party. Mussolini was known as El Duce and was leader of Italy, the first Fascist regime, during World War II.

Adolph Hitler

german leader of Nazi Party. 1933-1945. rose to power by promoting racist and national views

meiji restoration

The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.

emperor hirohito

Emperor who forced the Japanese government to surrender, which ended World War II

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