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Chapter 14 psy
Terms in this set (115)
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
___ theory proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality
who proposed psychoanalytic theory
___ theories focused on our inner capacities for growth and self fulfillment
(1) Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
(2) freud's therapeutic technique, freud believed the patients free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences - and the analyst's interpretations of them - released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patent to gain self-insight
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person realized and says whatever come to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
the partly conscious, "Executive" part of personality the according to Freud, mediates among demands of the id, superego, and reality
the ___ operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
the partly conscious part of personality that, according to freud, represent internalized ideals and provides standard for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
because the ___ demands often oppose the id's, the ___ struggles to reconcile the two
in this stage it is from 0-18 months
this stage's focus's pleasure centers on the mouth - sucking, biting chewing
this stage is from 18-36 months
this stage's focus's pleasure on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demand for control
this stage is form 3-6 years
this stages focus's pleasure zones the genitals; coping with incestous sexual feelings
this stage is from age 6 to puberty
this stages focus is a phase of formant sexual feelings
this stage is from puberty on
this stages focus is on maturation of sexual interests
freud believed that during the ___ stage, boys develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother and jealous and hatred for their father
according to freud, a boy's sexual desire toward his mother and feelings of jealous and hatred for the rival father
according to Freud's ideas about the three-part personality structure, the ___ operates on the reality principle and tries to balance the demands in a way that produces long term pleasure than pain
the ___ operates on the pleasure principle and seeks immediate gratification
the ___ represents the voice of our internalized ideals )our conscience
in the psychoanalytic view, conflicts unresolved during one of the psychosexual stages may lead to ___ at that stage
freud believed that our defense mechanisms operate ___ and defend us against ___
What big ideas have survived from Freud's psychoanalytic theory?
freud is credited with first drawing attention to the important of childhood experiences, to the existence of the unconscious mind and to our self protective defense mechanisms
in what way has freud's theory been criticized
not scientifically testable and offering after-the-fact explanations, focusing too much on sexual conflicts in childhood, and being based on the idea of repression
which elements of traditional psychoanalysis have modern day psychodynamic theorists and therapists retained?
freud's interviewing techniques and tend to focus on childhood experiences and attachments, unresolved conflicts and unconscious influenes
__________ tests ask test-takers to respond to an ambiguous stimulus, for example, by describing it or telling a story about it.
according to freud's view of personality structure the "executive system, the ___ seeks to gratify impulses of the __ in more acceptable ways
Freud proposed that the development of the "voice of conscience" is related to the ____________, which internalizes ideals and provides standards for judgments.
According to the psychoanalytic view of development, we all pass through a series of psychosexual stages, including the oral, anal, and phallic stages. Conflicts unresolved at any of these stages may lead to
fixation at that stage
freud believed that defense mechanisms are unconscious attempts to distort or disguise reality, all in effort to reduce our ___
Freud believed that we may block painful or unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, or memories from consciousness through an unconscious process called
In general, neo-Freudians such as Adler and Horney accepted many of Freud's views but placed more emphasis than he did on
modern-say psychodynamic theorist and therapists agree with fried about
the existence of unconscious mental processes
which of the following is not part of the contemporary view of the unconscious
repressed memories of anxiety-provoking events
the __ which wants immediate gratification, operates in the unconscious and attempts to satisfy basically sexual and agressive impules
the __ is the largely conscious, reality oriented executive that attempts to reconcile the impulses of the id with the demands of the superego and the constraints of the external world
the __, our internalized set of ideals, is the voice of our conscious, judging our actions and producing feelings of guilt or pride
the ___ theories sought to turn psychology's attention away from drives and conflicts and toward our growth potential
the humanistic theories movement's focus on the way people strive for __ ___ and ___ __ was in contrast to Friedman theory and strict behaviorism
to share and mirror another person's feelings
___ ___ believed that people nurture growth in others by being empathic
__ proposed that self-actualization is the motivation to fulfill one's potential, and one of the ultimate psychological needs (another is self-transcendence)
Which two primary dimensions did Hans Eysenck and Sybil Eysenck propose for describing personality variation?
extraversion to introversion and emotional stability to instability
What is the acronym you can use to remember big 5 personality factors
What are the 5 big personality traits?
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
T or F: the big 5 personalities apply to almost all cultures
Our scores on personality tests predict our ___ behavior across many situations much better than they predict our specific behavior in any given situation.
humanistic psychologist's' view of personality focused on the potential for...
healthy personal growth and people striving for self-determination and self-realization
carl rogers believe that the ingredients of a growth-promoting environment are
acceptance, genuineness, and empathy
___ concept was a central feature of personality for both Maslow and rogers
T or F: western cultures prize introversion
intro versions does not equal
extravert don't always outperform introverts as
T or F: introverts handle conflict well, seeking solitude rather than revenge
questionnaires on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors
personality inventories (such as the MMPI)
for personality inventory tests, test items are ___ ___, and the tests are objectively scored
objectivity does not guarantee
T or F: a persons average traits do not persist over time and are not predictable over many situations
False; they do; they are
can train predict behavior in any one situation
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs proposes that we must satisfy basic and physiological and safety needs before we seek ultimate psychological needs, such as self-actualization. Maslow based his ideas on:
his study of healthy, creative people
How might Rogers explain how environment influences the development of a criminal?
assert that the criminal was raised in an environment lacking acceptance, genuineness, empathy, which inhibited psychological growth and led to a negative self-concept
The total acceptance Rogers advocated as part of a growth-promoting environment is called __________ ___________ ____________.
unconditional postive regard
_______ theories of personality focus on describing characteristic behavior patterns, such as agreeableness or extraversion.
the most widely used personality inventory is the
which if the following is NOT one of the big 5 personality factors
Our scores on personality tests best predict
our average behavior across many situations
What big 5 is this: tendency to be attracted to new ideas and new ways of doing things; appreciation for art; imagination; creativity
what big 5 is this: tendency toward negative emotionality and emotional instability, along with inability to cope with stress
what big 5 is this: tendency to show self-discipline, act carefully, value achievement and prefer planned rather than spontaneous behavior
what big 5 is this: tendency to seek social interaction and adventure and to maintain a high level of physical activity
what big 5 is this: tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic toward others
this theory helps explain patterns of behavior
Which is NOT an enduring idea that originated with Freud?
the role of repression in memory formation
Carl Jung emphasized the importance of _____ in personality functioning.
the collective unconscious
Eli has always been an extravert. There is some evidence that people like Eli seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low. For example, extraverts:
exhibit less activity in a frontal lobe area involved in behavior inhibition.
Albert bandura proposed the ___-____ perspecive on personality
the social-cognitive theory emphasizes the interactions of ___ with their ___
to describe the interacting influence of behavior, thoughts and environment, Albert bandura used the term__ ___
to predict someone's future behavior examine the person's __ behavior patterns in __ situations
people who feel confident in their abilities tend to be __
Inflated self-esteem can lead to __-__ ___, aggression and narcisssism
the tendency to accept responsibility for success and blame circumstances or bad luck for failure is called
___self esteem is linked to angry and aggressive behavior
____ self esteem is healthier self image and allows us to focus beyond ourselves and enjoy a higher quality of life
social cognitive researchers apply principles of ___,___, and ___ behavior to personality
learning, cognition, and social
describes the interaction and mutual influence of behavior, internal cognition and environment
T or F: social cognitive theories have been faulted for overemphasizing the importance of unconscious motives, emotions, and biologically influenced traits
the ___ is vigorously researched as the center of personality, organizing our thoughts, feelings and actions
considering possible selves helps motivate us toward ___ development, but focusing too intensely on ourselves can lead to the __ effect
___ ___ can lead to complacency and prevent us from seeing real risks
___ to ones's own incompetence may lead us to make the same mistakes repeatedly
__-__ bias is out tendency to perceive ourselves favorable, as when viewing ourselves as better than average or when accepting credit for our successes but not blame for our failures
__ self-esteem is fragile, focuses on sustaining itself, and vies failure on criticism as a threat
__ self-esteem enables us to feel accepted for who we are
the social-cognitive perspective proposes our personality is shaped by a process called reciprocal determinism, as personal factor , environment and behaviors interact.
an example of an environmental factor is
the presence of books in a home
Critics say that __________-__________ personality theory is very sensitive to an individual's interactions with particular situations, but that it gives too little attention to the person's enduring traits.
the tendency to overestimate others' attention to and evaluation of our appearance, performance, and blunders is called the
Researchers have found that low self-esteem tends to be linked with life problems. How should this link be interpreted?
the answer isn't clear because the link is correlation and doe snot indicate cause and effect
A fortune cookie advises, "Love yourself and happiness will follow." Is this good advice?
yes; if self love is of the secure type
Of the approaches to personality described in the textbook, the _____ approach is MOST closely aligned with mainstream psychological research on learning and information processing.
According to terror-management theory, people enhance their self-esteem in order to defend themselves from fear of their own:
Which of the following is a psychoanalytic method for exploring the unconscious in which patients are told to relax and say whatever comes to mind?
Genie has always had trouble with her weight. She was not breast-fed when she was an infant and seems to be overcompensating now. Which psychosexual stage is Genie fixated in?
The ______________ attempts to classify people according to Carl Jung's personality types.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
You are an expert witness for the defense on the results of the MMPI. Opposing counsel asks you if this is an unbiased instrument. You respond by saying:
objectivity does not guarantee validity
Dr. O'Higgins believes that the study of personality should focus on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences. Dr. O'Higgins probably would identify with the _____ perspective on personality.
Mark's optimism is both a contributor to and a product of his successful career accomplishments. This BEST illustrates:
When their self-esteem has been threatened, people with large egos may:
Carl just learned that he failed an exam. Because his self-esteem is temporarily lowered, he is more likely to:
all of the things
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