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particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells. NOT a cell.
long, thin, whip-like structures, with a core of microtubules, that enable some cells to move
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
cycle in which a viral genome replicates as a provirus without destroying the host cell
uses RNA as a template to make DNA, which then inserts into the host cell's genome
a thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions
Autotrophic bacteria that can derive energy from chemical reactions of simple inorganic compounds
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan/ DNA is distinct from bacteria
Viral DNA that is integrated into a host cell's chromosome and replicated each time the host cell replicates
have a record of every sickness in order to remind the body of what to do to fight the sickness quicker each time one gets it
secondary immune response
The adaptive immune response provoked by a second exposure to an antigen. It differs from the primary response by starting sooner and building more quickly.
Organism that secretes digestive enzymes and absorbs the resulting nutrients back across the plasma membrane; fungus or bacterium that decomposes the remains of plants, animals, and microbes in the soil
a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity. produces t-cells
substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another
a protein-carbohydrate compound found in bacterial cell walls, gram positive bacteria have MORE of it
(what makes bacteria deadly) -exotoxin(secreted from cell) -pathogens that use pili to stick to one
archaebacteria found in anaerobic environments such as animal intestinal tracts or sediments or sewage and capable of producing methane
T cells that help the immune system by increasing the activity of killer cells and stimulating the suppressor T cells
Lymphocytes that use enzymes to destroy the cell membranes of bacteria and other foreign invaders.
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
primary immune response
the initial immune response to an antigen, which appears after a lag of several days
acts as an aid to the blood system and consists of the lymph spaces, lymph vessels, and lymph glands
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