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62 terms

bacteria and virus

biology
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virus
particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells. NOT a cell.
prophage
the viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA
flagella
long, thin, whip-like structures, with a core of microtubules, that enable some cells to move
binary fission
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
transformation
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
capsid
the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus
bacteriophages
viruses that infect bacteria
lysogenic cycle
cycle in which a viral genome replicates as a provirus without destroying the host cell
reverse transcriptase
uses RNA as a template to make DNA, which then inserts into the host cell's genome
animal virus
...
endospore
a thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions
facultative anaerobes
can survive with or without oxygen
chemoautotrophs
Autotrophic bacteria that can derive energy from chemical reactions of simple inorganic compounds
photoheterophs
sunlight ( energy source); organic cpds.;only some prokaryotes
pathogens
organisms that cause disease
cocci
any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
spirillium
spiral shaped bacteria
archea
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan/ DNA is distinct from bacteria
thermoacidophiles
live in very acidic environments that have very high temperatures
provirus
Viral DNA that is integrated into a host cell's chromosome and replicated each time the host cell replicates
b-cells
make antibodies, have a memory record of every cold/sickness one has had
memory b-cells
have a record of every sickness in order to remind the body of what to do to fight the sickness quicker each time one gets it
secondary immune response
The adaptive immune response provoked by a second exposure to an antigen. It differs from the primary response by starting sooner and building more quickly.
saprotophs
Organism that secretes digestive enzymes and absorbs the resulting nutrients back across the plasma membrane; fungus or bacterium that decomposes the remains of plants, animals, and microbes in the soil
thymus
a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity. produces t-cells
vaccine
substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
plasmid
circular DNA molecule found in bacteria
LSP
left sacrum posterior, gram negative bacteria have it
nucleiod
Region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located
conjugation
the act of making or becoming a single unit
transduction
The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another
host
an organism that provides a source of energy for a virus or another organism
lytic cycle
cycle of viral infection; results in replication of virus and cell destruction
retrovirus
virus that contains RNA as its genetic information
prions
infections virus-like particles, only protein, NO DNA OR RNA
peptidoglycan
a protein-carbohydrate compound found in bacterial cell walls, gram positive bacteria have MORE of it
obligate anaerobes
Organisms that cannot live where molecular oxygen is present.
photoautotrophs
organisms that use the sun to generate their own food.
chemoheterotrophs
take in organic molecules for both energy and a supply of carbon
symbiotic
involving a close relationship of mutual dependence, benefiting each other
virulence factors
(what makes bacteria deadly) -exotoxin(secreted from cell) -pathogens that use pili to stick to one
bacilli
aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium
cyanobacteria
predominantly photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms-result of photosynthesis
halophiles
live in exreme salt water (Dead Sea, Great Salt lake)
methanogens
archaebacteria found in anaerobic environments such as animal intestinal tracts or sediments or sewage and capable of producing methane
helper t-cells
T cells that help the immune system by increasing the activity of killer cells and stimulating the suppressor T cells
killer t-cells
Lymphocytes that use enzymes to destroy the cell membranes of bacteria and other foreign invaders.
antibody
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
primary immune response
the initial immune response to an antigen, which appears after a lag of several days
parasite
an organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host
3 domains
Bacteria, archaea, eukarya
lymph system
acts as an aid to the blood system and consists of the lymph spaces, lymph vessels, and lymph glands
HIV
the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
enzyme
catalist
LPS
lipopolysanchride in a cell wall of a gram- cell
phage
virus
parasitic
living animals inside you
pathogen
anything that causes disease
polio
virus
H1N1
swine flu
salk
found vaccine against polio
jenner
found first vaccine