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97 terms

AP Psych chp.

STUDY
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Sensation
experience of sensory stimulation
Perception
process of creating meaningful patterns from raw sensory information
receptor Cell
A specialized cell that responds to a particular type of energy
Absolute Threshold
te least amount of energy that can be detected as a stimulation 50 perecent of the time
Adaptation
Adjustment of the senses to stimulation
Difference Threshold
The smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50 percent of the time
Weber's Law
the principle that the just noticeable difference for any given sense is a constant proportion of the stimulation being judged
cornea
The transparent protective coating over the front part of the eye
Pupil
small opening in the iris through which light enters the eye
Iris
Colored part of the eye
lens
transparent part of the eye inside the pupil that focuses light on the retina
Retina
Lining of the eye containing receptor cells that are sensitive to light
Fovea
Area of the retina that is the center of the visual field
Light
The small segment of the electromagnetic spectrum to which our eyes are sensitive
Wavelengths
The difference energies represented in the electromagnetic spectrum
Rods
REceptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision and perception of brightness
Cones
Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision
Bipolar Cells
Neurons that have only one axon and one dendrite; in the eye, these neurons connect the receptors on the retina to the ganglion cells
Visual acuity
the ability to distinguish fine details
Dark adaptation
Increased sensitivity of rods and cones in darkness
Light adaptation
Decreased sensitivity of rods and cones in bright light
Afterimage
Sense experience that occurs after a visual stimulus has been remoed
ganglion cells
Neurons that connect the bipolar cells in the eyes to the brain
Optic nerve
The bundle of axons of ganglion cells that carries neural messages from each eye to the brain
Blind spot
Place on the retina where the axons of all ganglion cells leave the eye and where there are no receptors
Optic chiasm
Point near the base of the brain where some fibers in the optic nerve from each eye cross to the other side of the brain
hue
the aspect of color that corresponds to the names such as red, green, blue
Saturation
the vividness or richness of a hue
Brightness
The nearness of a color to white as opposed to black
Additive color mixing
The process of mixing lights of different wavelengths to create new hues
Subtractive color mixing
The process of mixing pigments, each of which absorbs some wavelengths of light and reflects others
trichromatic theory
Theory of color vision that all color perception derives from three different color receptors in the retina (usually red, green, and blue receptors)
Colorblindness
Partial or total inablilty to perceive hues
Trichromats
People who have normal color vision
Monochromats
people who are totally colorblind
Dichromats
People who are blind to either red-green or yellow-blue
Opponent-process theory
Theory of color vision that three sets of color receptors (yello-blue, red-green, black-white) respond in either/or fashion to determine the color you experience
Sound
A psychological experience created by the brain in response to changes i air pressure that are received by the auditory system
Sound waves
Changes in pressure caused when molecules of air or fluid collide with one another and then move apart again
Frequency
The number of cycles per second in a wave; in sound, the primary determinant of pitch
Hertz
Cycles per second; unit of measurement for the frequency of waves
Pitch
Auditory experience corresponding primarily to frequency of sound vibrations, resulting in a high or lower tone
Amplitude
The magnitude of a wave; in sound, the primary determinant of loudness
Decibel
Unit of measurement for the loudness of sounds
Overtones
Tones that result from sound waves that are multiple of the basic tone: primary determinant of timbre
Timbre
The quantity or texture of sound; caused by overtones
Hammer, anvil, stirrup
The three small bones in the middle ear that relay vbrations of the eardrum to the inner ear
Oval window
Membrane across the opening between the middle ear and inner ear that conducts vibrations to the cochlea
Round window
Membrane between the middle ear and inner ear that equalizes pressure in the inner ear
Cochlea
Part of the inner ear containing fluid that ibrates which turn causes the basilar membrane to vibrate
Basilar membrane
Vibrating membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear; it contains sense receptors for sound
Organ of Corti
Structure on the surface of the basilar membrane that contains the receptors cells for hearing
Auditory nerve
The bundle of neurons that carries signals from each ear tothe brain
Place theory
Theory that pitch is determined by the location of gretest vibration of teh basilar membrane
Frequency theory
Theory that pitch is determined by the frequency with which hair cells in the cochlea fire
Volley principle
Refinement of frequency theory; receptors in ear fire in sequence, one group, then another, etc., firing corresponds to the frequence of sound
Olfactory epithelium
Nasal membranes containing receptor cells sensitive to odors
Olfactory bulb
The smell center in teh brain
Pheromone
Chemical that communicates information to other organisims through smell
Ohermone vomeronasal organ (VNO)
Location of receptors for phermones in the roof of the nnasal cavity
Taste buds
Structures on the tongue that contain the recptor cells for taste
Papillae
Small bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds
Kinesthetic senses
senses of forces and movement of muscles
Stretch receptors
Receptors that sense muscle stretch and contraction
Gogli tendon organs
Receptors that sense movement of the tendons, which connect muscle to bone
Vestibular sense
Senses of equilibrium and body position in space
SEmicircular canals
Structures in the inner ear particularly sensitive to body rotation
Vestibular sacs
Sacs in the inner ear that are responsible for sensing gravitation and forward, backward and verticle movement
Gate control theory
Theory that a "neurological gate" in the spinal cord controls the transmission of pain messages to the brain
Placebo effect
Pain releif occurs when a person believes a pill or procedure will reduce pain; caused by endorphins
Figure
Object perceived to stand apart from the background
Ground
BAckground against which the figure appears
Feature detectors
Specialized brain cells that only respond to particular elements of the visual field such as movement or lines of specific orientation
Perceptual constancy
Tendency to perceive objects as stable and unchanging despite changes in sensory stimulation
Size constancy
Perception of an object as the same size regardles of the distane from which it is viewed
Shape Constancy
Tendency to see an object as the sae shape no matter what angle it is viewed from
Brightness constancy
Perception of brightness as the same, eve though the amount of light reaching the retina changes
Color constancy
Inclination to perceive familiar objects as retaining their color despite changes in sensory information
Monocular cues
Visual cues requiring the use of one eye
Binocular cues
Visual cues requiring the use of both eyes
Superposition
Monocular distance cue in which one object, by artly blocking a second object, is perceived as being closer
Linear perspective
Monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that two lines seem to come together at the horizon
Aerial perspective
Monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that more distant objects are likely to appear hazy and blurred
Elevation
Monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that the higher on the horizontal pane an object is, the farther away it appears
Texture gradient
Monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that objects seem at greater distances appear to be smoother and less textured
Shadowing
Monoculr cue to distance adn depth based on the fact that shadows often appear on the parts of objects that are more distant
Motion parallax
Monocular distance cue: objects closer thatn point of visual focus seem to move opposite viewer's moving head, and objets beyond the focus point seem to move same direction
Steroscopic vision
Combination of two retinal images to give a three-dimensional perceptual experience
Retinal disparity
Binocular distance cue based on the difference between the images cast on the two retinas when both eyes are focused on the same object
Convergence
A visual depth cue that comes from muscles controlling eye movement as the eyes turn inward to view a nearby stimulus
Monaural cue
Cue to sound location that requires just one ear
Binaural cue
Cue to sound location that involves both earrs working together
Autokinetic illusion
The perception that a stationary object is actually moving
Stroboscopic motion
Apparent movement that results from flashing a series of still pictures in rapid succession, as in a motion picture
Phi phenomenon
Apparent movement caused by flahsing lights in sequence, as on theater marguees
Physical illusion
Illusion due to distortion of information reaching receptor cells
Perceptual illusion
Illusion due to misleading cues in stimuli that give inaccuraate perceptions