Respiratory System PGY 300 Practice exam

The airways are responsible for which of the following?
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John is 66 years old, had worked in an industrial factory for 30 years, has a decreased FRC, decreased lung compliance, a normal airway resistance, and has a respiratory rate of 30 breaths per minute. John probably is suffering fromLung fibrosisChronic obstructive pulmonary disease can be associated with which of the following?Is the fourth leading cause of death in the United Sates. Smoking is a major cause. There are many medications available to treat COPD, but no cure. Development of artificial bioengineered lungs may help COPD patients (all of the above).Which patient has the greater alveolar ventilation?Ron is breathing 15 times per minute, with a tidal volume of 500 mL and a dead space of 150 mL.The lung disease most likely to result from climbing to the peak of Mt. Everest is:pulmonary edema.The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in systemic venous and arterial blood,respectively, in a healthy person at rest is approximately46 mmHg, 40mmHgThe expiratory neurons primarily trigger the __________ muscles, whereas theinspiratory neurons primarily control the __________ muscles.abdominal and internal intercostal, diaphragm and external intercostalWhich of the following would make the oxygen-hemoglobin curve shift to the left?Increased pH.Chronic hypoxia:Shifts the HbO2 dissociation curve to the right.Match the lung disease to its description (may use more than once or not at all). 1. respiratory distress syndrome ____destruction of elastin fibers. 2. emphysema ____ decreased lung compliance. 3. asthma 4. pulmonary edema ____ decreased surface area for gas exchange. ____ bronchiole constriction.. ____ fluid accumulation in interstitial spaces.21234The group of neurons which mostly control expiratory neurons are:ventral respiratory group (VRG)Specialized receptors found in the medulla which trigger a reflex increase inventilation are DIRECTLY activated by:increase in cererbral spinal fluid H+.What is an immediate (<10 minutes) effect on a person's response to breathing amixed gas of 10% O2 and 90% N2, and their alveolar PO2 drops to 45 mmHg (what is new equilibration state)?Decrease of central chemoreceptor activation.Which of the following would increase airway resistance?Breathing through a snorkel.During normal breathing by a healthy individual, at end inspiration:alveolar pressure is zero, intrapleural pressure is at its most negative, tidal volume is maximal.A person in an accident breaks a rib which punctures into their lung. What occurs with the lung and chest wall from the injury?The pleural pressure becomes more positive. The chest wall expands outward (B and C occur).If a person sitting at rest begins to voluntarily hyperventilate, what occurs?Alveolar PO2 increases, alveolar PCO2 decreasesWater is exposed to a mixed gas in which the partial pressure of oxygen is 100mmHg and gas "X" is 100 mmHg. The concentration of oxygen in water is 0.15mmol/L and the concentration of gas "X" in water is 0.45 mmol/L. Which following statement is correct?Gas "X" is 3 times more soluble than oxygen in waterIf someone inhales as much air as possible and then exhales maximally, the total amount of air exhaled from the lungs is called:vital capacity.If the enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase was decreased, which of the following would occur?Decrease activity of the central chemoreceptorsWhich of the following will have no effect on the systemic arterial PO2?Solubility of oxygen in blood.What will cause a shift of the curve to the right?Exercise.What is the approximate P50 of the left shifted curve?18 mmHg.At a P CO2 = 40 mmHg, what is the approximate % O 2 saturation of the hemoglobin in the venous blood (PvO2 =40 mmHg)?70%.Carbon monoxide poisoning would most likely result in which of the following conditions.Anemic hypoxiaMinute volume is the product of ___________ times the respiratory rate.Tidal volumeAlveolar ventilation is the difference between __________ and _________ times the respiratory rate.Tidal volume; dead spaceThe alveolar gas equation is used to estimate the partial pressure of alveolar oxygen using a direct measure of theCarbon dioxide utilizationWhole body plethysmography is based upon Boyle's Law and most often used to measure which of the following?Residual volumeBlood going to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries contains a high concentration of _______ and low concentration of _________ compared to systemic arterial blood.Oxygen; hemoglobinWhich one of the following is NOT a function of the respiratory system:Changes body pH by changing oxygen levelsWhich of the following is NOT involved in the disease cystic fibrosis?Inhibition of surfactant secretionArrange the following events in the correct order as they occur during inspiration: 1. Air flows into the lungs 2. Alveolar volume increases 3. Thoracic volume increases 4. Pleural pressure decreases 5. Alveolar pressure decreases3,4,2,5,1Besides lubricating the visceral and parietal pleura, the pleural fluid alsoHolds the visceral and parietal plural membranes togetherOxygen and carbon dioxide move through the respiratory membrane and into and out of cells by the process ofDiffusionWhich of these factors increases respiratory rate?increased blood PCO2Normally, the most important factor for regulating respiratory rate isCO2 level in the bloodWhich of these statements concerning respiration is NOT true?Hydrogen ions from the blood directly stimulate the central chemoreceptors.With respect to regional distribution of pulmonary blood flow, which of the following is true?Near the middle of the lung (Zone 2) flow may be intermittent when Pa >PA > PvWhich of the following statements about the lungs of an upright person is true?The ventilation/perfusion ratio is higher at the top of the lung than at the bottom.The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in systemic venous and arterial blood,respectively, in a healthy person at rest is approximately:46 mmHg, 40 mmHgThe primary signal detected by the peripheral chemoreceptors isA decrease in PO2Hyperventilation of the lungs tends toDecrease the carbon dioxide concentration in the bloodThe oxy hemoglobin dissociation (saturation) curve shifts to the right as the blood becomes more acidic. At a P O2 = 40 mmHg the percent saturation of hemoglobin__________ and the content of oxygen bound to hemoglobin ____________.Decreases; decreasesNitrogen is the gas generally considered to be responsible for decompression sickness or the "bends" (e.g., gas bubbles forming in the blood) in deep-seadivers who come to the surface too rapidly after having breathed compressed air for a period of time. At a depth of 99 feet the water pressure is four atmospheres(4 x 760 mmHg = 3,040 mmHg) and the gas pressure they are breathing is also at four atmospheres. Which of the following gas laws most immediately describes the cause of the "bends"?Henry's lawA person with a tidal volume = 300 mL, a dead space of 150 mL, and aventilation rate of 20 breaths per min, would have an alveolar ventilation of____________ and a total pulmonary ventilation of ____________.3000 ml/min; 6000 mL/minWhich of the following patterns of ventilation would be typical of heavy exercise?HyperpneaWhich of the following factors do not normally directly affect blood flow through the lung?Venous to arterial pressure gradientWhich of the following statements about respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is FALSE?The surface tension within the alveoli is abnormally low.Which of following is most TRUE regarding the mechanics of ventilation?The change in the volume of the lungs with pressure is a measure of their compliance.Bicarbonate ion and hydrogen ions results from a reaction of ______ with water.Carbon dioxideAir flow through the bronchioles is inversely proportional toResistance to air flowBoyle's law states that for a given quantity of gas, the gasPressure is inversely proportional to gas volumeWhich of the following statements best describes the vital capacity of the lung?The maximum amount of gas that can be expired after a maximuminspiration.Which of the following statements best describes the tidal volume of the lung?The volume of gas inspired or expired in an unforced respiratory cycle.The law demonstrating that the pressure in an alveolus is directly proportional to the surface tension of its fluid and inversely proportional to the size (radius) of that alveolus, is know asThe Law of LaPlaceWhich of the following does not contribute to the rapid exchange of gases that takes place between the alveoli and the blood capillaries?A very steep temperature gradient between the outside atmosphere and the alveoli.Which of the following is not a functional process performed by the respiratory system?Transport of respiratory gasesWhich of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the primary bronchi?Cartilage